Friends of the Library
HISTORY OF CARLSBAD
A community relations project undertaken at the behest of the
"Friends of the Library'' of Carlsbad, California
Base Information Office
Marine Corps Base
Camp Pendleton, California
Coordinator: Major Randall L. Mitchell
Author: Master Sergeant John B. Harmon, Jr.
Compiled research by Mary Allen of Carlsbad, California
With appreciation to Robert D. Garland and Charlice Dunne
Of the Carlsbad Journal
For their capable assistance
Serene as the old depot appears, it has provided problems from beginning to end. My problem was its beginning the community's problem now is its "fate." Records state that it was erected in 1907; however, other sources indicate that it was paid for by the "Company." Senior citizens say "It was here when we came." Hence confusion!
An early writer mentioned a Methodist and a Congregational Church. No records of either one can be found. Due to lumber shortages, many of the first buildings were torn down and in several instances they were moved and remodeled, thus their initial identity was lost.
If conflicting records and the moving and remodeling of buildings caused confusion, can you imagine what it did to me to find two Kreutzkamp sisters married two Carpenter brothers and that two other Kreutzkamp sisters further involved the situation by marrying two brothers?
My sincere apologies to Mr. John Harmon. The title manuscript that he presented was man written and coherent. At the last minute, however, more valuable information was eagerly offered and has been inserted in an effort to record it before it too become lost. If some sentences and paragraphs seem to be "just poked in," it was my doing. The recording of history is something that cannot be delayed. Five of the 'Senior Citizens" who contributed earlier to this project have since passed away.
Here then - with an element of sadness, with some apologies, and a great deal of pride - is our history.
The story of Carlsbad is the fruition of a pioneer's dream that of establishing a thriving town site on undeveloped, plain land, having it mature into an urban community where families take great pride in generations of loved ones becoming educated, marrying and carrying on the family line on into line clay of formal city incorporation.
So you might say Carlsbad is a promising city, of great heritage.
It is this heritage that Carlsbad's "Friends of the Library" organization wishes to place before all citizens, visitors and prospective residents of this community.
Its heritage is Democracy personified, warmly human, and drawn from immigrants and established Americans alike. Families came. Families stayed. Families grew. Some families may have moved away, but left behind their mark on this community.
The major intermingling of the human with the plans, progress, failures and stalemates of the area has naturally brought into the history of Carlsbad the human emotional (characteristics of hope for bigger things, joy over successes and heartbreak over Failures. Regardless of the mood of the moment, the eye was to the future.
On the up sweep of progress, Carlsbad sparkled in its glory. On time downgrade or in Inns, Carlsbad tightened its belt, rolled up its sleeves and primed itself for new emergence. But when we speak of Carlsbad in these terms, we actually speak of her people and her "people" reach back to the dim past when a Spanish priest first viewed these lands and called it "San Simeon Lipmaca."
It was on July 17, 1769, that the priest, Father Juan Crespi of the Portola—Crespi Expedition, caught his first glimpse the valley. Fr. Crespi at the time was ministering to the spiritual needs of the military men and Indians on this expedition that sought Monterey Bay on a northward trek out of San Diego.
Gaspar de Portola, of noble rank and appointed as the Spanish governor of the Californias, was seeking the harbor reported by Sebastian Vizcaino in 1603 determined to colonize Alta California. The expedition was on its third day out of San Diego when Fr. Crespi’s diary recorded his naming of Carlsbad's lagoon "San Simeon Lipmaca”.
Whether he saw it or smelled it is left to the speculation those of us who follow. The soldiers, though, were not in sympathy with the saintly dub. They referred to the lagoon as "Agua Hedionda (stinking water), which has persisted to the present.
The Crespi camp was supposedly made near a spring at the point of a small hill, under some sycamore trees, near a deserted Indian village.
Charles Kelly maintained that at this site, the padre's followers could have never seen the lagoon. However, they might have been subjected to odors dead fish and decaying mineral matter wafted inland on the afternoon breeze.
Or, another school of thought proposes that they might have been downwind from the stench of filth and debris of the deserted Indian village.
Nevertheless, the name has now held for almost two centuries: “Agua Hedionda”.
Another attempt at a later time was made to name the lands in the surrounding area “Rancho San Francisco." This name appeared in the will of Juan Maria Marron, a retired sea captain, who had been granted the Land in 1842 by Governor Alvarado. His grant was among 29 ranches given in San Diego County to citizens in sympathy with the Mexicans who occupied these lands.
Despite Marron's wishes, the land became popularly known as “Rancho Agua Hedionda,” a fact that he also mentioned in his will.
The Agua Hedionda grant extended south along the sea coast from the present city at Carlsbad to Encina Creek, then eastward about five miles, then north to Buena Vista Creek: thus, coming close to the western border of Les Vallecitos de San Marcos and the southern boundary of Rancho Buena Vista, two other Spanish land grants.
Marron had settled in San Diego about 1821 and had become active in village life. He married Felipe Osuna, daughter of Juan Maria Osuna, one of San Diego's first citizens and owner of the historic San Dieguito Rancho only a few miles to the south.
Capt. Marron's name appears quite frequently in the "early days" of California. In 1831, he joined with Pio Pico, Jose Antonio Carrillo, Juan Bandini and other San Diegans in a revolt to oust the tyrannical Gov. Manuel Victoria.
Their army of about 30 men marched from San Diego to Los Angeles, probably right through Agua Hedionda, only to lose their fight to Victoria's lesser numbers and flee the field. Victoria had been wounded sufficiently in the skirmish that upon recovery he resigned and was succeeded in the governorship by Pio Pico.
Pio Pico was to become Juan Marron's great neighbor to the north. Each of them enjoying estates from the division of the domain of San Luis Rey that sprawled from present-day San Clemente on the north to Encinitas on the south and From the Ocean inland to the Pala Mountains. This vast jurisdiction was subdivided into six ranchos, and of the six, Santa Margarita was the largest.
Pio and his brother Andres came into full property rights the ranchos San Onofre and Santa Margarita in 1841 and in 1843 added 20 square miles of Las Flores which, with approval of Governor Flannel Micheltorena, became the great Santa Margarita y Las Flores on which Camp Pendleton is situated today.
Capt. Marron later was “regidor” (member of the council or governing body) of San Diego. He owned lands near San Juan Capistrano and the Cueros de Vanada Rancho, which was attacked by the Indians.
At one time the Indians were reported to have given trouble at Agua Hedionda, and legend says that Marron took refuge in the hills. Friendly Indian squaws brought him food until the trouble brew over.
Actually, the major portions of the lands now included within the city limits of Carlsbad originally were within the boundaries of the grant made by Governor Alvarado to Juan Maria Marron in 1842.
Upon Marron's death in 1853, the lands went to his widow and children. His son, Sylvester Marron, Sr., lived on the old grant for many years, but the final decree of patent was not issued until Dec. 12, 1872 to "Juan Maria Marron, his heirs and assignees" after having been proved through the U. S. Supreme Court. It was not recorded in San Diego County until April 28, 1873.
Francis Hinton, who had run a store and trading post at old Fort Yuma, Arizona, before coming to Southern California with the army's Mexican Boundary Survey, bought most of the Agua Hedionda from the Marron heirs in 1860.
The Hinton cattle bore his brand "FH" which had been registered in 1855. The ownership apparently didn't come outright in 1860. For the transaction to be full and complete, three separate deeds were recorded between the years 1865 and 1869.
CURTAIN! “THE KELLYS"
During the time that Capt. Marron was developing his grant lands, the Kelly clan was on the move toward a history-making epoch in America with the spotlight on Agua Hedionda and the pin-point, Carlsbad. The year that Marron received his grant, the Kellys converged on New Orleans after having been displaced from Ireland by the great "potato famine" of the early 1840's.
When the Kelly Family moved up the Mississippi to settle at Nauvoo, Illinois, one of the male siblings, William, joined the Mormon Church. This led him into joining the Mormon Battalion that participated in the Mexican war. In the year 1847, en route home to Salt Lake City by way of San Diego and Fort Tejon, William became the first of the Kelly brothers to view the beauties of Agua Hedionda. Brothers John, Robert and Matthew would not be reaching here until three or four years later, lay their own devious and respective routes.
However, Robert Kelly, who was born on Christmas Day, 1825, on the British Isle Man in the Irish Sea, was literally working his way cross-country in search of his fortune in this Great Land of Opportunity.
A farm boy, Robert had learned carpentry at age 14. This talent he brought with him at age 16 when his parents brought him to America. He carpentered in Louisiana, graduated to cabinet-mating in St. Louis and attended night school to achieve rudimentary education.
His wanderings took him to Galena, III; to Wisconsin’s pineries and to carpentering in Hancock County., before striking out in the summer of 1850 for California.
At Yuma, on the Colorado River, Robert went to work for the government. He whipsawed cottonwood to build a Ferry boat. A few months later he made his move to San Diego.
It is believed that he made the trek with the same Mexican Boundary Survey party that brought trader Hinton to San Diego. In San Diego, Robert Kelly assisted in building the First Wharf for San Diego harbor near the Santa Fe wharf of more recent years.
From this point, the man who became more affectionately known to Carlsbadians as "Uncle Robert" began to carve out an illustrious career.
In late 1851 he became a government mule driver, pulling freight overland to Fort Yuma with a six mule team. Several trips as driver and he was promoted by appointment as wagon master.
Later, Robert Kelly went into partnership with Colonel Eddy on the Jamacha Rancho, south of the El Cajon valley, in September, 1852. During the five years there, he raised cattle and farmed on the 8.876 acres, 12 miles east of the city of San Diego. On this acreage, it is said, the cattle grazed from the mountains east of El Cajon Valley to the edge of San Diego Bay where National City now stands.
“Uncle Robert" also became one of the "Judges of the Plains,” appointed by county supervisors to settle disputed ownership of cattle that roamed the Southern California lands freely. These judges naturally drew the ire of the lawless, and one dark evening July 16, 1856 for Robert Kelly it drew gunfire.
He was just finishing a hard day’s ride looking for cattle when he was attacked on The Cajon ranch by a gang of Mexican desperados, intent upon his death. He suffered severe wounds. The marks of three bullets that took effect were borne by him to the grave: the one that grazed the top of his head, the one that entered the back at his neck sideways coming out two inches above its entrance and the one that tore through the muscles of his left arm. His assailants are said to have died shortly afterwards in a revolution in Lower California, Mexico.
Robert Kelly sold his Jamacha interest in 1857 and took a “sabbatical" from ranching for a year in an Old Town, San Diego, mercantile business with Frank Amos.
About 1860, Robert Kelly became half-owner and major domo of Francis Hinton's Agua Hedionda ranch of 13.314 acres, located on the coast approximately 35 miles north of Old Town. He also managed the Hinton ranch at Jamul.
The double-arrow brand, registered by Robert Kelly in 1853, came with him to Hedionda. It appeared on the Hedionda horses and the Hinton “FH” brand was borne by the cattle.
When partner Hinton died in 1870. Robert Kelly inherited Hinton's half the property, receiving “all rights, title and interest" of the Hinton estate.
Because the post-war period, following the War Between the States (1861-1865), attracted many "squatters" to San Diego County, Kelly put 25 miles of fence around the Hedionda property to avoid being drawn into clashes with the "squatter farmers." At one time, prior the fencing it was said the cattle roamed unhampered over the land from Los Angeles to Lower California. Even today, it is possible to discover remains of some of the old split redwood posts and original barbed wire fence at Aqua Hedionda.
Robert Kelly remained a bachelor throughout his life; his land barony, however, was no barrier to consideration of others. During his lifetime, he was known as one of the public-spirited men of the county and is credited with having contributed liberally to every movement that advanced public interest. To help bring the railroad through, Kelly gave 40 acres to the city and "a money consideration" in addition to the right-of-way through his ranch.
The bachelorhood of Robert Kelly is laid to the fact that his romance with a white girl, Olive Oatman, was broken by her capture by Apaches. The Indians had waylaid her parent’s wagon and two other wagons which had separated from the main train along the Gila River. All were slain except the two Oatman girls, Olive, then about eighteen, and a younger sister. This was in 1851. Robert Kelly and another soldier are said to have gone to the scene of the massacre and buried the dead. The Oatman girls were not rescued until six years later, in 1857, when the Indians let them go. By this time Olive had three children and was pretty much a mental and physical wreck after the terrible life of hardship and abuse.
At 60 years of age. “Uncle Robert" was reported active and alert, a state ascribed to most men 20 years younger. His fine health was considered based on his many days in the saddle and the nights under the open sky. He, himself, advanced the opinion that “there is no place like San Diego, and as a climate for prolonging life" it has no equal.
During his residence in the Jamacha-Hacienda area, Robert Kelly was visited by two brothers, John and Matthew. Not too much is said about John in late news accounts, but the implication is that he came to San Diego about 1851 with Robert, associated with the Army, and several years later returned to San Francisco. John died there in the "Golden Gate" city in 1865, and no mention was made that he was survived by either widow or family.
Matthew's route, from Wisconsin to a homestead near Agua Hedionda, was almost as colorful as Robert’s peregrinations.
A rumor that gold was lying around loose in the gold fields of California caused Matthew to pack his bags and leave his wife Emily with her parents in Wisconsin in February, 1851. Mrs. Kelly was expecting a child soon, and Matthew speculated on being gone only a few months before he struck it rich.
Elizabeth Kelly Gunn, in her account of the Matthew Kelly migration to California, said that she was born the following June, 1851. "But after waiting three years," she said, "mother decided to go to California, too, to see why it took father so long to get rich."
Matthew's wife wrote three letters to her husband, then working in the mines in Deadwood, Placer County, Calif. In the first, she said she was "thinking" of coming and in the last said she “…had started and would be in San Francisco when the steamer John L. Stevens reached there."
Matthew received all three letters the same day. He barely had time to make it post-haste to San Francisco to be on hand to greet his family. They lived in Deadwood and Euchre Bar before deciding to go to San Diego where the late brother John and Robert Kelly had preceded them.
He made an exploratory run to San Diego and returned singing the praises of the country as a great cattle land. At the time of his excursion, there had been a "wet" spring and the grass was high. He bundled his family off in a freight wagon with their belongings to Auburn where they took a train to Vallejo, visited a week in San Francisco and boarded the side-wheeler steamer Orizabe. With furniture and other supplies bought in San Francisco, they left for San Diego.
They arrived in this Spanish-speaking city on Election Day in 1868 when President Grant was elected to his first term. Although a wharf was present in the harbor presumably the one "Uncle Robert" helped build — their steamer didn't tie up to it. Instead, they disembarked in a rowboat that put them on the beach. A stage coach took them to Town where they stayed at the Franklin House on the south side of the Plaza between the site of the old school house and Ramona's home.
They also stayed in Ramona's Home for a month by arrangement with Father Uback, the priest whom Helen Hunt Jackson described so as Father Gaspara in the novel "Ramona."
It can be surmised that during his family's stay there, Matthew Kelly was busy establishing his homestead on a tract adjoining the southeast corner of Rancho Agua Hedionda, for as Elizabeth Kelly Gunn said, "when father returned, we all started out for the ranch. Uncle Robert had sent his only conveyance, an ox cart with two-yoke of oxen. This was called a carreta." In this they put their provisions, baggage and furniture. The rest of their luggage, Matthew's wife and children were transported in a four-horse wagon. Matthew was astride "Chocolate”, one of Uncle Robert's horses.
Their route was through Rose Canyon, Soledad, San Dieguito, San Elijo and Encinitas rancho to Los Quiotes in the vicinity of the southwest of San Marcos.
In fast-failing daylight, they located the house but discovered they had no matches to tight the lantern. Matthew wasn't there, the driver didn't smoke and their supply of matches was in the ox cart somewhere behind them being escorted by Matthew.
They groped in the dark, acquainting themselves with the interior, bit-by-bit. With the tiny, hungry children crying in the background, bedrolls were laid out among the carpenters' shavings on the floor, in pitch blackness. About midnight, Matthew and the ox cart arrived. They set up a cook stove in the yard and ate breakfast on a big carpenters' bench.
This was judged a good year, with plentiful rain and fine grass for the stock. Elizabeth recalled:
"The cattle were little Spanish creatures that did not give much milk and were wild as deer. We had fourteen cows for a while and only got an ordinary milk bucket full of milk from all of them."
The milk they gave was blue and impossible for making butter. Butter came on the steamer from San Francisco that had been coming only once a month, but due to the increase of traveler traffic, began stopping every two weeks at San Diego Bay.
The Los Angeles-to-Lower California "open range" during the “No Fence" law period, saw only annual roundups of cattle. At these roundups, the calves were branded and earmarked before releasing them until the next year. The cattle thought people on foot were strange; so strange, in fact, that pedestrians stood a good chance of being chased by the curiosity-enveloped cattle. Almost everyone, therefore, rode horseback.
It should be explained that before the time of fences when every body's cattle ran together, the calves were branded when they were quite small. Then the mother cows would claim their own calves with a strong determination, even putting up a fight and requiring that the man on foot doing the branding be guarded by other cowboys on horses. It was easy then to see the mother cow's brand and ear mark and put the same marks on the calf. Any calf that escaped branding until after the mother had weaned it became a "maverick" because the mother cow would no longer claim her offspring. Then such a calf "yearling" was the property of whoever got his brand on it first.
Four dry seasons struck. Many cattle died from lack of feed and water and the morale of the ranchers in San Diego County sank to a new low. Fortunately for the Matthew Kelly's, an earthquake somehow loosened up the underground strata, reactivated an old spring nearby, and a new one broke to the surface in their back yard.
Elizabeth Gunn mentioned this earthquake episode in her memoirs which she wrote in her declining years after the Gunn Family moved From Julian to San Diego. They built a home in San Diego's Mission Hills on property Uncle Robert had bought many years before.
The old Matthew Kelly "Los Quiotes” homestead is now owned by Leo Carrillo, a descendant of the early Carrillos in this region, whose fame was built upon many Western films and other Hollywood cinema and television productions as a character actor.
It may be well, now, to look back at the expanse of the famous Rancho Agua Hedionda, since lands come before people and we are beginning to enter the strong "people" side of this account.
As described by Charles Kelly's son, Irwin, "The original Rancho included the hills and valleys southerly from the middle portion of the present Vista Way, forming a rough rectangle about four and a half miles north and south by about five and a half miles east and west. The northeasterly corner lies about two miles directly south of the center at Vista. The northwesterly corner was cut OFF by a diagonal, starting just east of the present El Camino Country Club. Basswood Avenue, just north of the new high school, is a part of the diagonal line. Extended to the southwest, it passes through the Jefferson Street school grounds to intersect the tide line at the north side of the Agua Hedionda Lagoon entrance.”
The first known partition of the ranch lands was in a quit claim from the new owner Robert Kelly to Sylvester Marron on a strip about a mile long by a half mile wide along what is now Vista Way, including the little valley southeast of El Camino Country Club.
During the time he was the resident title-holder the property, Robert Kelly is believed to have sold 564 acres, in addition to giving the 40 acres to help bring in the railroad.
Upon Uncle Robert's death in 1890, possession of the land passed by will to his brother Matthew, but Matthew had died in 1885 so the land went to the nine nephews and nieces: Elizabeth Anna Gunn, Matthew Edward Kelly, Mary Emma Squires, Minnie Lillian Borden, Charles Kelly, William Sherman Kelly, John Lincoln Kelly, Francis Jane Pritchard and Robert J. Kelly.
Irwin Kelly, son one of the original heirs Charles, said that during the years 1892 and 1896, the entire grant was held in common, but that period also saw another section split off from the joint holdings.
Irwin told of the land boom following the building of the railroad into San Diego continuing into the early ‘90’s, "but the financial panic that hit the eastern United States in 1893 soon reached California. The Bank in San Diego in which the family deposited its funds, closed its doors to the dismay of the community. Luckily just at this time a Mr. Thorpe offered to buy the track known as Thum Lands."
This tract showed on the Carlsbad maps extending southwesterly from east of the high school to Pirates Cove and along the north shore of the lagoon to the ocean, the northerly boundary lacing the line referred to along Basswood and its extension.
"My father," said Irwin, “was sent to Los Angeles to close the deal and in later years he told us of bringing back the purchase money, all in gold coin, distributed in the many pockets of a leather money-vest.
Part of his journey had to be made on horseback and his body was sore for days from the pounding of the heavy coins."
Another "boom-days“ venture he told of was the Minneapolis Beach Colony Company which had started developing and selling parcels on the mesa south of Agua Hedionda lagoon. One lone house stood for years as a monument to this “fizzled” development. It had been brought in from San Marcos on wagons to rising ground where Cannon Read crossed the ridge east of the freeway. "An agreement to sell five acres was recorded in 1894, “he concluded, "but no actual deeds were ever recorded."
The Minneapolis Beach Colony Company hoped to sell five acre lots on which to grow mulberry trees to feed a silkworm industry. A building which was to be used to house the silkworm (cocoonary) was later moved from what is now Cannon Road area to the high mesa west of the Calavera Mountains for a school. This was about 1900. It was called the Calavera School and was attended by Kellys, Marrons and Bordens. When Allan Kelly attended the first grade (1906) there were six Kellys, four Marrons and four Bordens. Later the school dwindled to five or six pupils and was finally abandoned about 1912, when the Robert Kellys and the W.S. Kellys moved to San Diego.
As families go, the Kelly heirs were marrying or reaching marriageable age, so the decision was made to split the land equally to provide home sites for the heirs. An agreement was reached on the system of division. The parcels were designated on slips of paper and drawn from a hat by the heirs.
To this, there were only three exceptions.
First, Minnie L. (Mrs. W. Borden) and her husband asked for the parcel designated as Lot J. This included the high hill where Chestnut St. crossed east of the high school. In return, they sacrificed rights to other Robert Kelly estate property that was not within the Rancho. The home that the Bordens built on their portion later was the residence of R. N. Sheffler.
Two parcels remained after the chance-drawing as common holdings. One, Lot H was a coastal strip a mile or wider paralleling the ocean and railroad. It included the lagoon area (earlier called Terramar) to the south boundary of the grant. Some twenty years later this lot was sold to the same interests who planned and built the Henshaw dam.
The other common holding was a small rectangle, including the Basaltic cliff and known as Calavera, which was sold many years later to S. Kelly who owned the surrounding land.
To take such a huge package of land and divide it equally is viewed as a tremendous undertaking even when government surveyors have staked out only elementary dividing lines. However, it has been reported that because the Agua Hedionda was a Mexican grant, the land was never sect ionized by the Land Office. It was already privately owned and not subject to appropriation under the Homestead Act or other laws pertaining to the Public Lands of United States. There existed U. S. Government Land Survey markers only along the exterior boundaries, but they were utilized.
The division of land within those boundaries, then, appears as unique as it was agreeable to all heirs.
The old stage road now known as El Camino Real was their logical dividing line. The second logical dividing line was the then travelled road which started from the old Stewart station (then located on the railroad near the present crossing of Cannon Road in Terramar) easterly along the ridge occupied by Palomar Airport and easterly along the present road to San Marcos.
Areas between these roads and between them and the exterior boundaries were then cross-divided by section lines and half-section lines projected across the grant from the U. S. Government Land Survey markers.
Although of equal acreage, the parcels were considered of equal value. Equability rested on stock-raising values. Smaller acreages contained better grazing potential or natural water. The larger areas were more or less productive.
The divisions then were designated as alphabetical lots, Lots A, B, C, etc., eleven in all. Surveying was accomplished in 1895.
The last published estimate showed that less than 20 per cent of the original Rancho was owned by descendants of Matthew Kelly, although the name Kelly persists on records, and is expected to continue in prominence for another generation or two.
And speaking of Kellys in regard to the land makes ripe the moment to mention another attempt to swing the name "Agua Hedionda in another direction. On the original survey map of John L. the lagoon is named "Lake at Mourn of Agua Hedionda."
All nine of the heirs except Elizabeth Kelly Gunn settled on the divided lands. She had married years before and was living in Julian on a fruit and cattle ranch.
The 1100-acre Lot J, conceded to Minnie L. (Mrs. W.W. Borden) and her husband was the first to be divided among the generation. The individual inheritances were given out through the years 1910 to 1920. Two of the Borden sons, R. and F. V., were living on their parts after the others had died or moved away.
Minnie and her husband sold 100 acres of their holdings near the high school for $1500, which they applied to the home that later became the R. N. residence.
Lots A and I were sold as entities by the original owners, but in later years a larger part of Lot I was purchased by W. S. Kelly and sons Allan and Horace, returning the title at least under the Kelly banner. Lot B, divided later among second generation holders, retained only one of the groups as title holder in later years.
When a first generation daughter married, the name naturally was changed, which accounts for subsequent holders’ names appearing as Borden on Lot J, Gunn on Lot D, Squires on Lot C and Pritchard on Lot I; second generations added many more.
The Kelly name, though, was recorded also in titles of the central part of the Rancho, including considerable portions of Lots E. F, G and L and smaller portions of B. Here, the holders in not too distant years were listed as the Allan Kellys, Carroll Kellys, James Kellys and Irwin Kellys whose homes in the central portion were referred to by the natives as in "The Rancho Valley." These four were all cousins, each a son of a different brother in the first generation, and three of them had male heirs to carry on the name.
The land that comprised most of the geographical history of the City of Carlsbad has been shown initially distributed, but what of the people? The people who seek the lands create the history of any area’s growth.
Letting the people's contemporary mirror present them, we have seen the father of the Carlsbad epoch, Robert Kelly, in his role of foresight and the Kelly progenies initiating an era by dissembling the Hedionda; and yet, another great influence was brought to bear in the development of this area.
The Civil War, also called the War Between the States, was ended and left in its wake a restless people as all wars do.
The post-war influx of strangers, seeking new lands and new vistas, new opportunities and a new start, needed no railroad. They mustered into the area by stage-coach, foot, carreta, horseback, buckboards and covered wagons. Impetus was given the flow of newcomers by two great events: the opening of the railroad on January 2, 1881 and the California land boom of the 1880's whose mark is yet seen in architecture of preserved Carlsbad edifices.
Even as Robert Kelly was the one man recognized as the keystone of all prewar development in this unnamed corner of California that became Carlsbad, so can John A. Frazier be rated as the human keystone of post-war development.
The Fallbrook, National City line of the California Southern Railway was put into service through Carlsbad on January 2, 1881. In 1885 it was re-named the Santa Fe. The first train depot was a 24' x 64’ frame structure replacing an open shed. At one time the station bore the name of “Carl”. This was the railroaders' attempt to stem the flow of freight being miss-sent to Carlsbad, New Mexico. However, the station name was never adopted by the city.
The earliest known station master was Mr. John A. Frazier who arrived in Carlsbad with his wife and two daughters on Christmas Day in 1886. His daughter, Mrs. Hallie Nye of Long Beach, said that he came because of the mineral springs.
Linking the two the railroad and Frazier we find a new era blossoming for Carlsbad, under the title derived from common dubbing by tourists and transients: “Frazier’s Station,” Carlsbad's first name.
It was at Frazier's house, across from the Carlsbad Hotel, where travel weary railroad passengers sought a refreshing drink of water from the well.
The "slip" that is proverbially associated with the cup and the lip here was missing! Those who tasted the water spread its fame.
John A. Frazier came to Carlsbad in 1883, chose his home site and dug his well as was the custom.
An account by Paul Kemble, writer with "The Coast Commercial Herald" that was published in 1889 or 1890 when Carlsbad was only a year old, tells, that by that time a sign on a huge water butt beside the railroad in the center of the village invited all to “alight, drink and be happy."
Kemble said that the 50-foot water tower drew from a 510 foot well two distinctly different waters, one he calls "artesian" and the other “mineral”. Artesian water came from a 400-foot depth and the mineral water from approximately 450 feet down, beneath a sub-stratum of mineral rock.
Artesian water was piped to a tank 400 feet away behind the town, 175-feet high. This supplied pure, soft water to the town. The mineral water was piped to all quarters of the town and to the mineral water company’s preserves.
The development of time coincided with the near-peak of the Southern California land boom of the 80's. Railroad excursions were run from Los Angeles, San Diego and other communities. Thousands upon thousands of people tasted the water and sang its praises, spreading the word-of-mouth publicity fast and far.
Meanwhile, John A. Frazier had the water from his well analyzed.
The water proved to be almost identical in taste and chemical content water from the famed “Well Number 9" at Karlsbad, Bohemia. Excited, jostling throngs caught up in the climax of the land boom were drawn to this discovery of “Genuine mineral water – good for old and young alike."
And with the crowds came publicity, more publicity and the erection of a resort hotel and the inevitable subdivisions and land sales.
An analysis prepared by the laboratory of Smith-Emery Co. of Los Angeles showing parts per million of the chemical content, listed the water as:
Iron Oxides-Alumina 5.0
Calcium Carbonate 45.0
Calcium Sulphate 448.8
Calcium Chloride none
Magnesium Chloride none
Magnesium Carbonate none
Sodium Carbonate none
Magnesium Sulphate 15.2
Sodium Sulphate 31.1
Sodium Chloride 2088.0
A flowery tribute to the community was published in the "Golden Era" of May. 1887:
“…destined to occupy a foremost place among the great sanitariums of the world is Carlsbad . . . it is safe to say that no other resort in the world combines the peculiar advantages for the health and pleasure seeker to be found there; for at that spot may be experienced not only strengthening effect of the vitalizing sea-breeze, and facilities for surf-bathing not excelled elsewhere, but the opportunity for testing the curative effects correspondent with those of the world renowned Karlsbad springs of Germany, which for centuries have been a source of hope and solace to the pain-worn multitudes of Europe. "…With publicity like that, it is little wonder that the sick and curious came in droves to Carlsbad”.
Reporter Kemble, giving his picture of the one-year-old town, said that a large eastern demand for water dictated the construction of a bottling works. He said that when the bottling works was finished, “the public at large will be able to test the efficacy of those famous springs."
A well-known fountain house, Matthews & Co., was arranging to handle the bottling company's New York and St. Louis shipments. Mr. Matthews intended to run the water through his principal fountains in eastern cities.
The population of Carlsbad on its First birthday numbered 300, on the increase. The town boasted a telegraph office, Wells Fargo Express, a good school house, a Methodist and a Congregational Church, a good hotel and another elegant and commodious hotel soon to be finished.
Kemble said, “The property belongs to the Carlsbad Land and Water Company, a corporation of wealthy eastern capitalists, whose officers are as follows: Gerhard Schutte, president; Henry A. Nelson, vice president: Samuel C. Smith, secretary; D. D. Wadsworth (or Wordsworth as found in an earlier reference), treasurer, and A. Frazier, general superintendent."
Kemble, after a tour around Carlsbad with Samuel C. Smith, secretary of the Carlsbad Land and Water Co., behind a famous trotter from the Smith stable, reported:
“Although the soil is sandy, it possesses rich nutriment that is capable of successfully producing almost all of the tropical and deciduous fruits, as well as vegetables, produced elsewhere in the states."
Earlier accounts provide a hint only from Elizabeth Kelly Gunn that her parents had planted fruit trees on their inherited land. But Kemble ended his report on the note: “There were many indications of the rapid growth in the many flourishing farm houses and groves of the foothills."
“Mr. Samuel C. Smith, the shrewd secretary of the Company, was born in Connecticut and has been on the coast but a short year; yet to his penetrating judgment, and to his associating himself with the Carlsbad Company; the Carlsbad Company has much to congratulate themselves upon. The most important changes have occurred since his coming the assured successful future of the town itself is due to his personal and laborious efforts.
"He is a man of stern moral views, and upright military bearing having passed through a rigorous, instructive childhood, he passed ahead of his neighbors in the rapid accumulation of high commercial standing and wealth.
"At an early age he was appointed by the government as agent on the Pawnee Reservation of Nebraska, and by his strong disciplined character and commanding fearlessness, held the respect and fear of his treacherous, crafty subjects. To him belongs the credit of not alone serving his country righteously, but of concentrating his strong willpower to the proper subjugation of the wild Pawnee Indians, and restraining their wild depredations.
“Resigning from his arduous duties, after two years service, he made a trip to the coast and in his own words, 'whilst viewing the country was so charmed and satisfied with the great field of resources, and the prospective future of Carlsbad,’ that he determined to go back east, bring out his Family and Belongings and make Carlsbad his future home. That he has done so, and that he possesses one of the most comfortable as well as hospitable households, is due proportionately to himself and to his charming wife.”
Gerhard Schutte, the company president, was born in Oldenburg, Germany, in 1839 and came to America at age 17. He served as a Union soldier in the Third Wisconsin Regiment in the Civil War battles at Gettysburg, Chancellorville, Cedar Mountain, Antietam and others.
After marriage in 1867 to Miss Bertha Miller of Maryville, Wisconsin, he engaged in lumber, grain and the agricultural implement business in Columbus, Nebraska, until 1886 when the family moved to California.
He and his family came to San Diego county from Columbus, Nebraska, in I886 over the Santa Fe railroad, because through the courtesy of that company they had obtained much better rates than were offered over a rival road, which we may suppose, exerted a favorable influence toward leading the home seekers to locate their little colony here on the Santa Fe line.
Arriving at San Diego city, "scouts were sent out to find a suitable location for their settlement, and learning of the advantages of the place where Carlsbad now is, Mr. Schutte came and investigated the situation. In scarcely more time than it takes to tell it he had made a purchase of 400 acres of land, paying for it $40 per acre.
At the time of the purchase, the whole coast region hereabout was covered with a heavy growth of Brushwood, commonly known as “chaparral” or a dwarf timber in variety, including oak, elm, mahogany, sumac, etc., from three to twenty feet in height.
A company was organized and plans made for a town supplied with water for irrigation. Water, it was believed, could be impounded by a dam at the "Marron Gorge," below the Buena Vista watershed. But for immediate domestic requirements a number of local wells were bored to a considerable depth, which were long noted for the pure, soft water obtained in moderate quantity.
In recognition of his vision and noble endeavors toward founding this community, Mr. Schutte has earned the title of "the Father of Carlsbad." Mr. and Mrs. Schutte made Carlsbad their home until 1906 when they moved to National City.
One of their daughters, Mrs. Ena Edmondson, resides in Oceanside; Mrs. Wm. Stromberg (daughter of Hattie Reece and Alfred Schutte) still resides in Carlsbad.
His dream was to see Carlsbad develop as a community of small acreages and homes rather than a commercial town and he worked toward that end.
Some of the residences of this vanguard of the commercial plane of Carlsbad remain today a monument of that yesteryear.
Of the Samuel Smith home, still standing today as the residence of Mrs. Hugh Magee, it was said to borrow none of the elaborate adornment of its period, but of much plainer design and built by fine craftsmen. It was likened to homes appearing in the 1859 edition of “Farmers and Mechanics Practical Architect" by J. H. Hammond.
The Gerhard Schutte and D. D. Wadsworth residences were almost identical. Mr. Schutte erected his family residence for a cost of about $9,000. They differed only in the fact that the octangular cupola covered porch on one was on the northeast corner and the other on the southwest corner. These were built in the smartest architectural style of the moment, the "Queen Anne Revival" creation of architect Sir Charles Eastlake and shown at the 1876 Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia. Only one, the Schutte home, remains today to carry on the “Twin Inns" name that was picked up by the pair at the turn of the century.
Ornate lines of these structures bore a great amount of carving in plaques and jig sawed corbel on the outside. As in other porches of this period, these were splashed generously with wood turned in fine detail, the overhanging corners displaying turned pendants. The gable ends and cupolas shingled in “fish scale" pattern.
The J. A. Frazier house with mansard roof and elliptical arched porches responded to the influence of an earlier period but was still termed of the post-Civil War design.
Another home from the same era is the Myers home at 3140 Highland Drive, built in 1887 Ivy A. J. Culver, the carpenter who built the Twin Inns and the Wadsworth building. Culver's son, Clinton and his family originally lived in this nine-room house.
The Culver residence showed use of handmade square nails and wooden pegs throughout. Although the walls have been re-papered and repainted, the original stenciled ceilings still exist in the four upstairs rooms. The redwood woodwork has never been changed.
Additional buildings on the grounds included a well-house, adjoining blacksmith shop and carriage house that became a garage. An earthquake in 1906 broke off the well filled it immediately with salt water and it was abandoned.
It might be worthwhile, at this point, to give some details concerning the buildings mentioned so glowingly by Mr. Kemble. The Wells Fargo express and the telegraph office were located in the depot. The "good schoolhouse" was situated in the "Chaparral," the spot where the present “Buy and Save" market now stands, with Dr. Amick as teacher. The "good hotel’' that is referred to was the Palma Hotel which was located on the SE corner of Oak and Second (later to be called Roosevelt). It was a two-storey building where prominent families of the day, including the Schutte family, often dined and attended dances.
After the boom it stood vacant for many years. Mrs. Ruby Carpenter Milholland recalls that, as a girl, she and her playmates filled their idle hours exploring the many vacant rooms and playing ghost in the “haunted house." Later, the Sipper family lived there for a short period after which time the building was tom down, to the sorrow of the neighborhood children.
The “elegant and commodious hotel, soon to be finished," was built by the town company at a cost of approximately $50,000. This hotel, which had the name of being one of the best outside of the large cities, had eighty-five guest rooms. It was destroyed by fire in 1896. Local gossip of the day murmured of arson.
Mr. Kemble did not mention it, but the newspaper during this period was called "The Sea Lion." The only known copy was in the possession of Mrs. Elizabeth Kreutzkamp Schutte, who found it (it was being used as a drawer lining) in a dresser which was given to her many years ago by Mrs. Gerhard Schutte. Unfortunately it was borrowed several years ago and is now lost to us.
While Carlsbad was caught up in a tide of building and planning, the quote “bubble" known as the California land boom of the 1880's burst.
It seems fitting to tie off this account of the blooming period of Carlsbad with an excerpt from the pen of reporter Paul Kemble, who also waxed poetic, and another bit rhyme that has been accorded popularity in full.
Kemble's poem, published in "The Coast Commercial Herald,” supposedly went far and wide during the time the repute of the well was being formulated.
No doubt the poem had its influence upon the sick and suffering whose ills appeared incurable but who still sought something onto which they could pin their hopes. It was entitled “A Wonderful Cure" and inferred that it was the story of J. A. Frazier.
After introducing the subject as a young man – Old, sick with a dreadful malady, his life spent and frame bent, given no hope to live by physicians, he came up with a plan –
"And what his plan now seemed to be,
Was seeking an Artesian Spring
Boring in sand so near the sea,
That neighbors laughed at such a thing.
“And yet, amid the jeers of all,
He worked away ’til cash was gone,
‘Till death was almost within call,
And then he saw the light of dawn
"Nearly five hundred feet he'd reached,
“When, bursting high the water gushed;
Vomiting stones, when he beseeched,
A farewell drink, all was hushed!
"Closing his wearied eyes, he said,
'I've proved that I was not quite mad;
Now take me quickly to my bed,
And let me die, I feel so bad”
"But in the night he stronger grew,
And on the morrow rose again;
And through the day his pulses flew,
And almost he was free from pain."
And his last two stanzas read:
"And as he drank from day to day,
His bent form straightened up aright;
His blood flowed freely on its way,
And life resumed its vigorous fight,
"This is the story, simply told,
Of one of nature's miracles.
The living truth is not too old
To prove it to all infidels."
The other poem is simply entitled “Carlsbad”:
“There's a fountain on the mountain
O'er the summit by the shore,
Where the sea-winds and the lea-winds
Meet and mingle evermore.
“Where below it lies in vista
From the peaks of Mexico
All the wondrous sweeps of valley
Up to San Jacinto's snow.
“It is Carlsbad, bonny Carlsbad
And upon its sparkling brink
Hygeia sits forever smiling,
And she Bids you come and drink.
“Are you ailing, are you failing
Have you ills you cannot tell?
There is healing past revealing
In the waters of the well.
“Coronado in the shadow
Of its fame will sigh alone
Escondido must recede, oh;
With the valley of El Cajon.
“What are money, words of honey,
What are all the gifts of wealth
If in the choosing you are losing
That one blessed Boon of health?
“What is climate, though you rhyme it
To all tunes the gods may give?
What are scenery and sea breeze,
If they cannot help you live?”
EL TIEMPO PAS
At the close of the 1880’s, when the California land boom began receding, Carlsbad entered a period of dormancy. It was said that when the curtain came down on the land boom, Carlsbad sighed and went to sleep. Hibernation spanned the years up to 1914.
When the Carlsbad Hotel burned down in 1896, it signaled a time when land sales virtually ceased.
However, another earlier fire the one that razed the Borden home in Barham, near San Marcos caused one of the original Kelly heirs to return to this immediate vicinity. Mrs. W.W. Borden, nee Minnie L. Kelly, and her husband William, children Charles, Carroll, Bertha Ellen, Earl and Ray (Sammie), all came to Carlsbad in 1893, two years before the Kelly ranch was divided. They rented a house on Harding St, near Oak.
William Webster Borden must have been a vigorous fellow. Born in Carroll County, Mo., in 1858, he came west with his family at age 11. The Bordens settled on 640 acres of brush land where Santa Ana is now located. In 1874 the Bordens moved to San Diego County where William’s father built a two-story concrete house up the canyon on the north side of the valley in back of Ponto. The property is now owned By Mrs. Walter F. Schuyler.
The old Borden property used to- and still may be- marked by a huge pepper tree that William Borden planted by accident. In fact, he didn't want a tree to grow there. He needed a hitching post, so be planted a limb from a pepper tree in the ground upside down to prevent it growing. It took root and grew, anyway.
When William Borden reached the age of his majority, he moved farther up the canyon into a house he had built. He resided there alone for about a year. In 1881 he married Minnie L. Kelly. In 1882 their first child, Charles, was born.
The William Bordens later moved to Barham where he started printing a small religious newspaper called, "Our Paper." Editor-in-Chief William Borden had as his assistant William S. Kelly, father of Allan Kelly. In 1885 the name of the paper was changed to "The Plain Truth” with Minnie L. Borden as assistant.
William Borden not only printed the paper in Barham, he also ran the post office and taught school (Mrs. Frank Carpenter was one of his pupils). In lieu of going to Normal school for two years to qualify as a teacher, he took and passed a test that enabled him to teach anywhere in California.
As a youngster, William, with his sister Ellen and two other brothers formed a formidable spelling bee team that was unbeaten around the countryside.
A December, 1888 edition of "Our Paper" carried San Marcos on its masthead as the publishing locale, indicating that Barham, a small settlement at the west end of San Marcos died out along with its post office and San Marcos continued to grow.
William Borden not only helped organize the Christian Church in San Luis Rey, but he preached there for several years. The church later moved to Oceanside.
After, living seven years in Carlsbad, William Borden started a monthly newspaper he called "The Spirit of Love," although there were two weeklies available to the community. The "Spirit of Love" was printed in the house on Harding street that later was occupied by Mrs. Nellie Butts.
His printing press was home-made. At one time, Hattie Reece Schutte was his local reporter. The paper ceased publication just prior to his death in 1924.
Allan O. Kelly recalled that the “Spirit of Love" office building, the school and a two-story house of Emilio Wilson's were the only buildings at this end of town. The editor liked color, so the roof of his building was red, the walls white, the window frames and doors yellow, purple, and green.
Borden built on the property inherited by Minnie. He built a "big" house of nine rooms in which they lived and a “little” house in which he printed the paper. Of recent years, the "little" house was still standing, although it had been moved to another part of the property.
William Borden also built a wooden windmill. It resembled a water wheel, with a shield built in front so the wind would strike only the bottom blades. This powered their corn grinder and home-made washing machine inside and outside thrashed beans and churned butter.
The Kelly land inherited by Minnie was mostly dry land with a small, inadequate spring. For water, cisterns were built to catch the run-off from the roofs of the house and barn. In dry years, water was hauled from Carlsbad. When Carlsbad’s water went bad; they hauled it in from Oceanside.
William Borden hated to make slaves of horses, so he walked everywhere. However, he tried once to build a home-made auto in a shop in San Diego, where they were trying to make him an engine. Charlie Kelly’s livery stable at 3rd and F Streets in San Diego was the scene of the engine manufacture. Irwin Kelly said, though, that long after the project was abandoned the engine was stored there.
Mrs. Borden died in 1919 and Mr. Borden in 1924. His funeral at the Christian Church, Oceanside, attracted so many the church couldn't hold them all. The choir sang songs written by Borden. Rev. W.E. Crabtree officiated. Mr. Borden was buried alongside his wife in San Diego's Greenwood cemetery.
Before he died, William Borden was to become the father of five more children all born in Carlsbad: Jennie, Forrest, Bessie Connor, Marion and Laurence, the youngest, who was born in 1903.
One of the wide-eyed spectators in the throng that witnessed the Carlsbad Hotel fire in 1896, was little Florence Shipley, age eight. She is lately known as Mrs. Hugh Magee who resides on Beech Ave, in one of the oldest homes in Carlsbad, the one originally built by Samuel C. Smith.
Florence Shipley's presence here was the result of successive happenstances beyond her control, and her father hadn't planned it that way.
She was the only child of Julia Surmont and Alexander Hamilton Shipley. Her father's cousin, the Secretary of State, Thomas Bayard, persuaded Shipley to accept the position of U. S. Consul to New Zealand. While in the land of the Maoris, Mr. Shipley suffered pneumonia and was advised by a physician to return to the United States, preferably California.
Alexander Shipley bought first in Napa County and retired there. Pneumonia struck again while he was visiting in San Francisco, so they decided to sample the climate of Southern California.
En route to San Diego on a dinnerless train, they stopped for dinner in Oceanside, during a terrific rain storm. Reported wash-outs between Oceanside and San Diego delayed the train's departure, so as a safeguard to health, Alexander Shipley and his family stayed overnight in Oceanside.
The following day proved to be sunny so a tour of Oceanside and Carlsbad was taken and the Shipleys were "taken" with Carlsbad. The immediate purchase of the Samuel Smith residence was the start of vast property purchases in Carlsbad by Mr. Shipley. The year was 1896.
Instead of proceeding to San Diego as planned, residence was established at the "elegant and commodious hotel." With no disrespect toward our founders, who exploited so grandly the story of the mineral water, Mr. Shipley had to leave the hotel and its water and move to a San Diego Hotel. Rather than curing him of all his ills (as the early poets claimed) the water did not agree with him. The climate, however, did. The Napa County property was sold, and the family settled in Carlsbad in their recently purchased residence. It was not long after this that the famous hotel burned. The holocaust was witnessed by Miss Shipley and was a sight that she will always remember.
At age 13, after attending Carlsbad school briefly with Miss Hattie Reece as her teacher, Florence was enrolled for four years in San Diego's Academy of Our Lady of Peace.
After marriage to Hugh Magee in 1912 at the old Mission San Luis Rey, Florence moved to the Las Flores ranch on the Santa Margarita ranchlands where her husband raised lima beans as his major crop. A few years later they moved to Pala to a dairy where hogs and cattle comprised a sideline. After Mr. Magee's death in 1941, Florence’s mother suffered illness that brought the daughter back to Carlsbad. She stayed with her mother on into 1943, when Mrs. Shipley died, then made this her permanent residence.
One the vast Shipley land parcels was the acreage on which the Royal Palms Inn stands. This was sold to a friend of the Shipley’s, A. Cohen, who retired from his Los Angeles grocery business and built as his residence the main building of the present day inn. The landscaping alone took two years to complete.
Another holding was the majority of property north of the Carlsbad Hotel. The red and white building behind the Carl Brown Realtors’ office was once Mr. Shipley’s library.
Mrs. Magee inherited most of this property and donated one half of Block Six in recent years to St. Michael's Episcopal Church for their new structure.
For more pre-1914 color we can lean again on the recollections of Allan 0. Kelly. He has already mentioned the Emidio Wilson two story residence as one of few in that part of town (across the street from where St. Patrick's church now stands). Emidio himself appears in Allan Kelly's narrative as color and action personified.
Allan Kelly's father, William Sherman Kelly, had built a warehouse at Farr Station which, in 1905 or 1906, was a Santa Fe siding where Cannon Road crosses the tracks from Terramar. Most of the mesa land had been cleared and hay was the main crop. To help get the hay to the warehouse, William Kelly hired Emidio Wilson, his wagon and teams.
Said Allan, "Wilson could “buck” bales talk to mules in plain language and throw a mean blacksnake. Emidio chewed tobacco, too and could spit in a wonderful way that I longed to emulate. Each burst of profanity was followed by a well-aimed blacksnake shot at the lead mules and a big spurt of tobacco juice. Sitting on the high wagon seat next to a man like this and driving down along the lagoon was an experience never to be forgotten.
"There was no road from our ranch house to the warehouse. The men just loaded the big wagons with baled hay, tied it on with ropes and started down the valley and along the south shore of the lagoon. There were some 'heavy pulls' getting across the sand flats at the head of the lagoon and then the steep pull up the hill getting out on the Farr Station mesa. This steep hill was just south across the lagoon from what is now Whitey's boat landing. In the course of time, the wagon wheels produced a kind of road that was passable, with a certain amount of black snake and tobacco juice. In a place or two along the south shore where the road was too sideling, they plowed a furrow along the upper track to keep the wagon from tipping too much and 'tailing' downhill.”
In 1914, Carlsbad began to stir itself.
The South Coast Land Co., formed to promote real estate developments along the coast, bought up all the remaining lands of the Carlsbad Land and Mineral Water Co. as well as other north coast area properties. The new company also tried to establish an adequate water supply by drilling wells in the San Luis Rey riverbed. Once again newcomers began to move into the area.
Carlsbad now turned to farming, with emphasis on winter vegetables, poultry and grains.
Mr. Frank Carpenter came to Carlsbad in 1907 with his wife, the former Miss Otillia Ortega, and five children (one other to be born here later). The family had been living near San Marcos. Mr. Carpenter subsequently purchased thirty-three acres of farm land; this property was bounded by Jefferson, Tamarack, Adams, and Magnolia Streets.
Some of their produce was trucked to Los Angeles, but the majority of the peas, beans and lettuce raised were iced at the packing shed and shipped by train to the east. This was a family venture employing father and sons, Rob and Roy. Of the Carpenter children, Rob and Mrs. Ruby Milholland are the only two still residing in Carlsbad.
The war brought one enterprise to the neighboring community of Encinitas which employed several Carlsbad men: Rob and Roy Carpenter, Albert Kreutzkamp and Jim Young. Prior to the war a particular type of round, blue stone of notable hardness had been imported from Belgium for use in the mines of Arizona and Nevada. These stones were used in the tube mills to help grind the ore. The war forced the end of these shipments, but, fortunately for Carlsbad, the same stones were found on its beaches. This gave employment to approximately eight Carlsbad men, for hundreds of carloads of these rocks were shipped from Farr Station for use in the mines of Arizona and Nevada.
Trying to stabilize the water supply was one problem, but another developed later because of too much at the time of the 1916 flood. According to documentation by the old Oceanside Blade, most of the flood was contained in the environs of Oceanside, although some Carlsbad residents or residents formerly of Carlsbad participated in heroic rescue attempts of flood victims.
The January 22, 1916 edition of the Oceanside Blade told how San Diego County struggled in the grip of a storm that exceeded anything experienced in the area for years.
The rain started on a Friday and poured steadily for about five days. Some sections experienced cloud-burst torrents. After a few days' lull, the rains began again on Wednesday afternoon. By Friday afternoon, the repairs that had obliterated the previous week's damage was undone.
The concrete San Luis Rey highway bridge was swept away as if it had been made of matchsticks. The San Luis Rey railroad spur was washed out and buried in the sands along the beach.
Much of the flood water was blamed on a warm rain in the mountains that hastily melted the snow deposits. Pine trees from Mt. Palomar floated down the San Luis Rey River to the sea.
Percy Watson, concerned over the safely of the Ort family, telephoned from San Luis Rey to Oceanside for a boat. Earl Frazee, Forrest Borden and W. S. Briley took the McGarvin boat and McGarvin himself, to join the Watson party.
Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Ort and daughter Alice were flying a distress signal from the roof their ranch house in San Luis Rey. The men carried the boat a great distance before they could launch it, but once launched, the boat brought in the trio. A week later the Ort house was swept down the river out to sea.
The area was closed in. Rail lines were cut, roads were out. It seemed the Oceanside-Carlsbad area was isolated from the world only by land, not by sea. A February 5, 1916 item in the Blade said that on Tuesday morning a steamer would leave San Diego for Oceanside with provisions and clothing for the destitute.
The first mail to reach Oceanside in over two weeks arrived by Reliable Auto Line, but it took a group of men down to Sorrento Flats to get it. They crossed the flats in a boat furnished by the South Coast Land Co. From Del Mar, the men carried the mail sacks on their backs.
Another February 5 news bit announced that vessels from the north and south arrived daily, landing passengers and provisions on the Municipal Pier, Oceanside, leaving coal for the Santa Fe railroad, flour, groceries, smoked meats and lard.
On February 19, the Blade announced that the first train for the north pulled in from San Diego on Thursday. The first train from the north arrived on Friday. Also, the First National Bank in Oceanside had set up a "Flood Sufferers Fund." Cash, clothing and bedding contributions were to be left at the Ladies Emporium.
"The South Coast Land Company's building and pumping station was entirely destroyed and the San Luis Rey River is running over the site of the plant." said the Oceanside Blade. Three lives were taken in the flood and hundreds of thousands of dollars damage was wrought.
In 1922, flowers, bulbs and avocados were just gaining a foothold and the center of the community's activities was the "packing house" from which produce was shipped. The "packing house" was a long frame building, remodeled later into a lumber shed by the Geib Lumber Co., later, Bauer's.
The state highway ran along State St. then known as First St, to Elm Ave, then west on Elm to the ocean proceeding south. Hardly more than a dozen assorted buildings comprised the business section. At the corner Elm and First, where Shadel's now stands was a frame store building housing the grocery, dry goods and hardware business of Mr. Simpson. The Twin Inns was already owned by Eddie Kentner and had become a restaurant.
A visitor's most lasting impression of Carlsbad was of the tall and stately eucalyptus trees planted years before, supposedly for railroad ties but the wood was found unsuitable.
A two-story school house had an enrollment of 81 pupils with three teachers. The water company was serving 150 meters. In this year of 1922, such names as Kreutzkamp. Young, Ennis, Shipley, Ramsey and Carpenter were familiar ones, still found today on rosters of those still active in civic, church and community life.
The homey, unpretentious warmth of a community such as Carlsbad brings forward many personalities in historical retrospect, for the humanistic ingredient is the dye that gives the community fabric its hue as it advances. Milestones of progress bear names, viz., Fr. Crespi, Juan Marron, Robert Kelly, and J. A. Frazier.
In this signal stage of new history when in the 1900's Carlsbad was breaking its hibernation; Miss Sally Troutman came on the scene. The Carlsbad Journal stated: "There is scarcely a person in Carlsbad who has lived here any time at all, who is not familiar with the name and figure of Miss Sally Troutman. Her love of people and of animals has brought her into contact with people from every walk of life in the community.
“No picture of Carlsbad would be complete without at least a glimpse of Sally's life and varied interests for they are an integral part of the friendly spirit for which our community has always been known. Here, then, is Sally…. and Friends,” concluded the introduction to Mary Allen's profile in print of Sally.
The drawing qualities of Carlsbad-by-the-Sea as a resort town were published throughout the nation and Europe. One such enticer in the Pittsburgh, Pa., Dispatch, proclaiming Carlsbad as THE place to rest and retire, caught the eye of Miss Sara (Sally) Troutman and Miss Marion Holmes. Miss Troutman was auditor for the First Presbyterian Church there and Miss Holmes taught at the Carnegie Institute of Technology in the Oakland district.
These two close friends spent vacations together, had travelled all of Europe and Canada and felt that a trip to the West coast might prove that the ad was true; they might find THE place to which they could retire and rest.
From contact in Los Angeles with the South Coast Land Co., they became guests at the Twin Inns, where the company hosted prospective land buyers. A tour with a company representative ended with the purchase of two and a half acres at Highland and Oak in 1920.
J. D. Newberry then owned the famous well. He and Mrs. Newberry befriended the pair and Newberry inveigled Sara into trying some of the mineral water for her severe acid indigestion. Daily she carried water to her Highland home and after six months, her pains were gone. She drank no other water for three years and was freed of her indigestion. And, according to Robert Kelly's opinion of this area as a great prolonger of life, Sally lived to become nonagenarian; her death came in 1960 while still in residence here.
The Newberrys were childless, so they welcomed the company of the two women. Sunday teas were a "must." If the maiden ladies failed to show on Sunday, Mr. Newberry went after them.
From Sally came a capsule observation of Mr. Newberry as a "very fair and just man, who never cheated anyone in his life. He was a wealthy man and a charter member of every major organization in Los Angeles, and he felt duty bound to attend all their meetings. His full-dress suit was old fashioned, but he refused to buy a new one, even though Mrs. Newberry begged him to do so each time that he wore it to the city. Mr. Newberry owned a chain of wholesale grocery stores from San Francisco to Los Angeles. When his health started to fail, he sold the stores. Although he passed away first, Mrs. Newberry was so devoted to him, her loss was so great, that she passed away soon after his death.”
Rest and retirement for the two women went out the window when in 1922 they volunteered to help the Union Church organize a Sunday school. On some property bought from Mr. Newberry’s brother in-law, just north of the Fennel-Christiansen office, Sara built "Sally's Cottage" and moved in, leaving Miss Holmes at the Highland residence.
“Sally's Collage” became a gift shop, the first of several businesses the Misses Troutman and Holmes were to try, and the business outgrew the cottage. Sally moved the shop to the northwest corner of Carlsbad Blvd. and Elm, taking up residence in the back.
The new shop, "Bob and Betty Belongings." opened on May Day, with a gala crowd, bouquets from friends and well-wishers. The lady partners were very busy, but they didn’t overlook giving souvenir pencils to the lady guests and toy balloons to the kiddies.
The shop's name was borrowed from Sally's niece Betty and a friend’s son Bob. The BBB studio shop with its rubber doll novelties was the end result of some experimentation earlier in Pittsburgh by Sally with a rubber band from the dime store.
Fire Mountain Sa-Ma cabins, another Troutman-Holmes venture, was never resolved despite elaborate advance plans and advertising.
In addition to her partnership venture, Sally kept books for Dr. Cartwright in Oceanside. Marion was a secretary in San Diego when Sally joined her there. After several years they returned to Carlsbad built a home on Garfield and Marion opened a toy-lending library in the then-vacant bank building. From Garfield, the women moved to Jefferson and it was here that Marion died in 1950.
Living alone in recent years in the Jefferson St. home, Sally received daily visits from friends who saw that hot meals were sent in to her since she was unable to do much cooking.
Typical of Sally's consideration for others was her insistence during the Mary Allen interview that she mentions two other women who ran a restaurant on the old highway, selling the "best waffles, cakes and hamburgers in town.“ She told the interviewer, "You can't tell about Marion and me without telling about Edna and Irma."
Irma Stevens came to Oceanside in 1925 from public relations work for New York City clubs, principally the Federation of Women's Clubs. Her father was the Union Church pastor in 1926 and 1927. She had been supervisor of music at the Oceanside High School.
Edna Nichols, after 10 years of teaching in Java and Singapore and graduate work at Northwestern University, came to Carlsbad in 1926. She died in 1951, but Miss Stevens is still living here.
In the early 1920's, Carlsbad held the limelight briefly as a major avocado production center, at one time rivaling any county in the nation as a producer of avocados. By 1925 the industry began to wane here under a combination of uncontrollable factors.
But the whirlwind ascension of the industry from a few plantings before 1920 to its zenith several years later is an important piece of the dramatic story of Carlsbad. Thanks to the support and sponsorship of the South Coast Land Co. Carlsbad was able to launch an annual "Avocado Days” celebration in 1925 to help make the buyers and buying public avocado-conscious. These annual "Days" continued long beyond the dimming of Carlsbad’s star of leadership in the avocado field. The “Avocado Day" celebrations, that drew as high as 10,000 folks, were ended only shortly before World II.
Pioneers in the development of the avocado industry in Carlsbad were Sam Thompson and John Newberry. They first recognized the potential of the industry and with L. C. Alles, formed the Carlsbad Avocado Growers Club in early 1923.
They called into meeting all the growers in the Carlsbad district to establish a headquarters where problems pertinent to the industry could be discussed and solved. The trio was elected as officers of the club with Newberry president, Thompson vice president and Atlas secretary.
They began with an initial membership of 17 that later grew to 92. Dues were a dollar a year and meetings were semi-annual. A slogan was adopted, "Carlsbad, the Home of the Avocado” later replaced by "Carlsbad, the Natural Home at the Avocado."
Around 1927, the publication "The Broadway of the Pacific" estimated the annual income for the avocado industry in San Diego County was 4,500,000. The same publication wrote the industry's epitaph: “This once proud avocado center must now relinquish its title to some of the higher producing inland areas and find for itself new glory.
The publication announced that the peak of planting came between 1935 and 1940; the peak of production in 1947-48.
A double halter was slapped on the industry by almost simultaneous dual adverse circumstances. First, water became short and available water was salty. Second, home-seekers surged into the area making it more profitable to sell home sites than market avocados.
Sam Thompson, a wholesale nurseryman for 14 years in Orange County, started the first avocado grove in Carlsbad in 1916, on land where the Carlsbad reservoir now stands. Two years later he moved downhill to his present eight-acre experimental site.
Sam's development of new avocado varieties won prizes in fairs and exhibits and drew interested, distinguished folk to the District.
L. C. Alles, former president of the Carlsbad Avocado Growers Club and a director of the California Avocado Association, had 26 acres in grove, the largest individual planting in San Diego County
E. G. Litchfield's grove at the southern end of Carlsbad, considered one of the show places of the avocado industry, surrounded a Spanish style house that was itself "built from avocados.”
A former wheat farmer in Canada, Litchfield maintained that one man could tend several acres of avocados if he stayed "on the go" eight hours daily and irrigated right. Litchfield championed the overhead sprinklers.
A. Theisinger left the jewelry business due to health and with no previous experience, established avocado groves here billed as the finest in northern San Diego County and the most financially successful.
Theisinger believed in high fertilization and generous watering of his groves. He had many seedling lands scattered throughout the area. His large nursery stock of seedlings and budded avocados combined with his production of fine fruit brought him much acclaim.
As the avocado industry was raising its head in Carlsbad in the early 1920's, commercial flower and bulb rising began.
A thumbnail picture of the scope of the industry here, offered by the Union Title-Trust Topics of July-August, 1949, estimated that 90 per cent of the nation's freesia bulbs came from Carlsbad’s nearly 3,000,000 bulb annual production. It also said that Carlsbad’s Comparative frost-free climate permits commercial growers to raise gladioli, freesias, poinsettias, ranunculi, bird of paradise, calla lilies, geraniums and pelargonium’s, although hundreds of varieties thrive here.
The “Big Three" of the industry were E. P. Zimmerman, Harry Bailey and Luther Gage.
Luther Gage had come here from Montebello in 1921 and was responsible for drawing Harry Bailey here, also, from Montebello. Gage was the first commercial bulb grower here. On five acres purchased at Tamarack and Jefferson, he began raising freesia bulbs. Earl Frazee (Oceanside) was his foreman and later his partner.
If Gage wasn't the first to hit the Los Angeles market with winter glads, he was among the first. He also shipped to France and Holland.
On 14 acres leased a half-mile from the freeway, he cultivated bulbs, raising iris, white and colored freesias, ranunculus, anemones, ixias, sapraxis, glads, baby glads and watsonias. He adopted "Tecolete" (Spanish for ground owl) for the copyright of his strain of bulbs.
Harry Bailey, a veteran nurseryman, was marketing fern seeds and bulbs in Florida. At one time, he had two ferneries, one a half-acre and the other a full acre. In addition to the bullet-like seeds of fern, he also marketed bulbs of all kinds from a four-acre tract. His favorite species were freesias, lilies, anemones and ranunculus.
E. P. Zimmerman, a former landscape architect in Los Angeles won silver cups and numerous blue ribbons for his gladioli, after starting with eight acres in bulbs over the hill from Carlsbad in Paradise Valley.
The Zimmerman hybrid watsonia has brought him international renown instead of being limited to white or pink watsonia blooms. Zimmerman’s 14 years of experimentation and pollination produced 25 to 50 different colors. The colors range from red, salmon, purple, and lilac almost every tint.
A pound of his watsonia hybrid seed sold one year for $100 to a customer in Europe.
In addition to his watsonia garden, Zimmerman had a tract planted with 150,000 bulbous irises.
The 1914-1920's period also includes Allan 0. Kelly’s recollections of the Agua Hedionda and Buena Vista lagoons:
"In the early days." said Allan, "most of the lagoons along the coast were dry in the summertime." He explained that creeks ceased flowing in dry seasons or abnormal rainfall caused heavy creek flows that took the water out to sea. When the lagoon received only sufficient water to keep it from overflowing, summer's end found much stagnant water remaining.
"The (Agua Hedionda) lagoon was never used for anything," he continued, "but I can well remember the 'race track' in the Buena Vista lagoon. The county road Vista (one store and warehouse) wound along the north bank of the lagoon just above the high water line.
“In the summer, as soon as the floor of the lagoon was dry enough, they began driving straight across the bottom to the foot of the hill by the old graveyard. This was the only straight, smooth road in the north end of the county and the only place where the sports could get up full speed in their new-fangled Stanley Steamers, Thomas Flyers, merry Oldsmobiles, Pope-Hartfords and such.
"About 1915 or 1916 the old dirt road along the coast was paved and new concrete bridges were built to replace the old wooden ones. The Hedionda Bridge was widened from 25 feet to 75 feet and built much higher. Big storms in 1922 and 1927 cut the channel out quite deeply and the tides continued to flow in and out of the Agua Hedionda lagoon for several years.
"Following the 1927 floods, the channel remained open for more than five years and the sand bars and beaches along the mouth of the lagoon became very popular picnic places. Everybody wanted to swim in the warm water heated by the sun as it spread out over the hundreds acres mud flats east of the railroad.
"Several Carlsbad fishermen left their boats anchored in the channel near the railroad bridge and many boats went in and out under the bridge when the tides were not too high or low. All this boating activity was spoiled when the State Highway built a new bridge just east of the old one and then dynamited the old one into the channel, blocking it off and causing it to sand up from that day on, until the Gas Company opened the channel again.
It might be well, while in this same era, to take a sampling of news items from the "Spirit of Love" monthly newspaper that Allan Kelly recalls was "published once a month, mostly in the interest of spreading the Gospel and in predicting the weather."
Living up to its classic definition, though, the "Spirit of Love" did carry news, and news is the pulse beat of any community solidified in lead, halted as it happened, displayed in black ink and transfixed for posterity.
The Volume 15, edition number 7 of the "Spirit of Love" bore an Oceanside, Calif., dateline, indicating that although the Carlsbad Post Office had been closed and re-opened, the dateline had not been brought up to date. So, from the July, 1915 "Spirit of Love" notes and news column of July 1915, we extract progress soundings:
"Day and night irrigation has been going on for some time, most of the bean raisers being engaged in it.
“There is talk of a move to have the afternoon mail service resumed as it was formerly hoped it will be done.
"The work of extending the 15-inch pipe line on Highland Avenue has been completed to the southernmost limits of the South Coast Company’s lands.
"S. Thompson, the Orange county nurseryman, has decided to plant all, instead of half his 14-acre tract here in avocado trees of various kinds that bear at different times thru (sic) the year.
"It is said that some of the town’s roundabout send to Los Angeles for vegetables that can be had from the Carlsbad gardens. Somebody should wake up.”
"G. F. Roberts, of Pasadena has bought from the South Coast co. the former Shirley place on Highland Avenue, and will give attention to poultry raising.
"The Carlsbad post office now occupies an east room in the Santa Fe railway depot, being so arranged that Mr. Chase, the postmaster to-be, can manage both the post office and the railway business.
“Alfred Schutte's Lima bean crop is ready to gather. Expert bean raisers estimate the yield at seven or eight sacks to the acre. Had they been irrigated, he believes he would have had several times that much."
And from the July 1920, issue of the "Spirit of Love
“Albert Kreutzkamp has rented land recently purchased by Mr. Asmus and is preparing it for peas, in addition to his own . . . . A.W. Theisinger and wife have bought six acres of land, with house on it south of the Dannesboe place, and expect to move in, (in) a few days. Mr. Theisinger, we understand, has been a jewelry manufacturer in the East . . . . Miss Olive Carey has let the contract for a new cottage in the block where she and her grandmother, Mrs. C. A. Hill, now have their summer residence. One or the other of the buildings will be rented . . . . . The weather is summery, tho (sic) not really hot . . . . Mr. and Mrs. E. Eymann have moved into their home which they built on land recently purchased near the Shipley place . . . . Victor Temple, of Phoenix, Arizona, has spent a couple weeks with his mother here, at the same time building a small cottage for her on land purchased the South Coast to north of the old 'Crain Store, . . . .Mr. Kerchoff and Mr. Toole, of the South Coast co., have been giving a few days attention to land and water interests here."
In 1925 the nation was in the midst of a boom that was leading to a bust.
Prosperity was everywhere and new businesses were rampant. Among them was time establishment of a new business in Carlsbad - the institution of the Carlsbad Champion, forerunner of the present Carlsbad Journal. Although the Carlsbad Champion was not the initial publication in the community, it was the first weekly newspaper published here.
Every editor of a newspaper leaves his individual signet on its pages. Significantly, as the paper changed hands, each transfer of ownership brought forth a distinguishing editorial statement somewhere along the line.
The Champion's owner, William A. Maxwell, borrowed from the now extinct "The Spirit of Love" publication its slogan, “Independent, but not neutral.”
Maxwell also used in the masthead the poem, author unknown: "Carlsbad Where spring comes in the summer, and summer comes in the fall; where fall comes in the winter and winter comes not at all." It was carried through editions of the Champion and the Journal as late as 1955.
Maxwell’s contribution of individuality in his initial editorial said, “Primarily, of course, the business is established for the purpose of making money and if it fails to provide a meal ticket for the undersigned, all the high-sounding statements of policy ever penned would not save it from the scrap heap."
Shortly after establishing the Champion, Maxwell sold it to E. B. Deu Pree, whose stylized brevity in the Feb. 4, 1927 issue read: "Champion editorials have been crowded out by the big half page ad of the First National Bank of Carlsbad. But that's the best editorial we can write Ed."
This Feb. 4 edition bore news of the opening of the bank and the Carlsbad Theater. Theater co-owners A. J. Clark and John Atkinson published an invitation from within the pages of the Champion for the public to attend their grand opening; it included the statement:
"It required a telescopial imagination and unlimited nerve to build and equip a theatre of this magnitude out in the middle of a Lima (sic) bean field but we are pinning our faith to Emerson's maximum ( sic) “If you build a better rat trap than your neighbor, the world will make a beaten path to your door."
The first movie was Clara Bow's "It."
South Coast Land Company advertised an "outstanding buy" on Feb. 4. 1927: 19 acres of North Carlsbad land with five shares of water stock for $6,000~ “Terms are only 10 per cent cash, the balance 10 per cent yearly."
When the newspaper was sold by Deu Pree to Judge Fred W. Mitchell on January 1, 1928, the newspaper changed its name to the Carlsbad Journal, and Mitchell's statement was: "The average man may ask ‘What’s in a name?’ and the query may be well taken. But it is believed the name Journal will eventually prove popular with the readers.”
Mitchell began using national "mat" service photographs of national affairs. In September, 1929, the Journal told of the Eastman Hotel Company's building of the Carlsbad Mineral Springs Hotel (now Carlsbad-by-the-Sea retirement home). This included a reproduction of the architect’s drawings, one of the first pictures of local interest to appear in its pages.
In 1948, the newspaper moved from its original site in the Killian building (now the Casino), to a new structure at 2780 State St. The following year, in June, 1949, the Journal reported:
"History was made in Carlsbad when Judge Fred Mitchell passed the baton over to Buzz and Bill Garland. The baton being the local stick of dynamite, ‘The Carlsbad Journal’.”
The Garlands, publishers of the Post-Dispatch of Oceanside, in their initial statement on July 7, 1949, said:
"The Journal will continue to be a Carlsbad paper. The advice and help of all our fellow townspeople will help us make the Journal a newspaper of which we can all be proud."
For 10 years they published at 2780 State St, then in November, 1959, moved to 2906 Carlsbad Blvd.
The September, 1929, Journal's advance reporting of the Eastman Hotel Company's plans to build crystallized in the May 24, 1930, opening of the half-million dollar" California-Carlsbad Mineral Springs Hotel. The resort and hotel negotiations had begun two years earlier with acquisition of the mineral spring property and a stipulation made to the City Fathers that the hotel would go up only if sanitary accommodations were provided. This spurred citizens into organizing the water district and "overwhelmingly" voting bonds for improvement.
When the nation was gripped in the tragic aftermath of the stock crash, and the world depression of 1929—1932, this hotel must have appeared as welcome to Carlsbad tours as the oasis to a waterless desert traveler. It was more than ample to fill the void left by the burning of the Carlsbad Hotel in 1896.
Carlsbad's $75,000 sanitary system became operative only two weeks prior to the opening of the elaborate Eastman Hotel Co. of Los Angeles enterprise. C. B. Stanford was president of the firm and G. A. Eastman, secretary-treasurer.
Introduction of the hotel into the community touched off an excellent prospectus for the area. One of the Carlsbad estuaries had a good possibility of being designated a state park, the development of the other estuary and adjoining grounds as a country club district with golf course, landing field and improved waterway for boating, fishing and bathing, merged with the facilities of the new hotel into a hopeful aspect for future consolidation here as an attractive health and recreational center.
And the offerings of the hotel were many.
It would be a hotel and a clinic. The famous Carlsbad mineral spring water was to be used for drinking and mineral baths. Its seaside site, profuse and well landscaped tropical gardens surrounding it the California-Carlsbad loomed as a great attractor. Elegant appointments were to be found throughout the huge lobbies, lounges, bar rooms and sun parlors.
The hotel had 130 rooms with outdoor exposure to the sea breezes, roof gardens, sun parlors and one wing of the lower floor was devoted to health-building.
California-Carlsbad's health program was built around mineral and ocean baths, a staff of attendants trained in Swedish and mechanical massage, electrical radiant and heat applications, cabinet baths, athletic health exercises, sun baths, salt glows and corrective diets. Outdoors were a tennis court, miniature golf course and a gymnasium where supervised physical culture would be on a daily schedule.
The health-building features of Carlsbad had already attracted the attention of Dr. P. M. Seixas, originator of the morning health exercise broadcasts over station KNX. Los Angeles.
Dr. Seixas was for seven years director of corrective exercises at West Point Military Academy. He had established permanent headquarters at Carlsbad for his California Health Club that had a following of more than a half-million in California and other western states.
Nationwide depression caught up with Carlsbad a year later. The hotel went into receivership with the California Building and Loan Assn. of Pasadena. In 1939, Oliver M. Morris bought it and turned it into a successful operation.
The rooms were filled to capacity during World II. Movie companies in post-war years housed their stars and staffs here while making pictures at Camp Pendleton.
After purchase by Spence Reese on New Year's Day, 1945, the hotel became the scene of Oceanside-Carlsbad Junior Chamber of Commerce Days of San Luis Rey Coronation and Rodeo balls.
Albert M. Mendez bought it in 1953 and in 1956 negotiations began for the Lutheran Services of San Diego, Inc., (Four Lutheran synods of San Diego County) to take over. It became a home for the retired under the name of Carlsbad-by-the-Sea after remodeling.
In the garden stands a Weeping Eucalyptus around which has been woven a legend:
“In the early days of California there lived the beautiful señorita Rosita Roja (Red Rose), daughter of Don Carlos Fernando Osuna, one of the best-known Spanish settlers.
"While her sweetheart, who was the captain of a Spanish ship, was away at sea, Rosita would sit by the lovely eucalyptus tree, dreaming of her captain's return when they would wed.
"One day news came that his ship was wrecked and all on Board had perished. The shock was so great that Rosita died of a broken heart. Soon, as if in mourning, the stalwart limbs of the lovely eucalyptus began to bow and the leaves fell like tears, shed for the fair Rosita.
"Many years have passed, but the stately eucalyptus continues in its attitude of mourning. There are many varieties of the Eucalypti which the Spanish brought from Australia, but so far as is known, this is the only specimen which has ever grown in this spreading manner,” thus reads a plaque in the garden.
This brings up naturally the subject of an entire grove of Eucalyptus trees, adjacent to the Buena Vista Lagoon, bounded on the north by Jefferson, east by the Marron and Rorick property, on the west by Crest Drive and by a canyon running north and south.
Known as "Hosp Grove," its story was told by one of the two owners, B. M. Christiansen:
He recalled that F. P. Hosp, an Oceanside nurseryman, saw great promise in eucalyptus trees imported from Australia as timber for railroad ties. The trees flourished here, so he passed the idea along to several of his acquaintances, Messrs. McGee, Martin and Whitaker. In November, 1907, meeting in Los Angeles, they formed the Hosp Eucalyptus Company with papers of incorporation issued by the Secretary of State. McGee was president, Hosp, vice president, Marlin, treasurer and Whitaker, secretary.
They believed the trees could be planted in eight-foot rows, the seedlings at five-foot intervals, at 1,082 trees per acre. They bought 219 acres from J. F. and Maria L. Connell San Diego.
Nurseryman Hosp was to guarantee that the planted trees would be living in 12 months from the date of planting or make replacements without cost. Initial purchase price for the trees, with boxes, was $14,000 per thousand.
Each of the men contributed working capital of $1500 apiece and the stock of the corporation was divided at 125 shares to each, with an established par value.
On May 7, 1908, Hosp reported 40,000 trees planted on about 45 acres.
The bill for Hosp's work and expenditures was $2,484.15. They approved the expense of survey of the tract and incorporation and a levy of $2.00 per share of stock was made payable at once. Other contributions followed.
“It has been estimated," said B. M. Christiansen, "that time investment and a fair interest return on the monies of purchase and development would have generated a total value of considerably over two million dollars, during the 51 years since the corporation had its birth."
The trees were unusable for railroad ties. Wet and green, the wood is as soft to the blade as butter. When dried after cutting, their fibrous texture takes on a flint like hardness which withstands all but the most violent attempts to make it usable.
One hope was held out by B. M. Christiansen. In the heart of the 155,000—tree eucalyptus forest is a vast cliff and natural canyon with wonderful acoustics. "Perhaps," he said, "it may boast the echo of fine voices and instrumental concerts.”
Myrtle Bream added that in the lagoon near the grove, a Carlsbad boy some years ago stirred local interest in the wild life that found refuge in the marshy waters. The lad revealed such a great variety of birds seen there that the lagoon was dedicated as the Maxton Brown Bird Sanctuary.
Yearly, hundreds of interested persons and Audubon groups make pilgrimages to the lagoon to view the waterfowl.
The interest is generated by the fact that the Buena Vista Lagoon and the Maxton Brown Bird Sanctuary, which lies between Carlsbad and Oceanside, is one of the few remaining wild life refuges in the state. Here you may see firsthand many varieties of waterfowl in their own habitat.
Maxton Brown on one of his lists tabulated only 44 varieties birds. In 1959, the Buena Vista Audubon Society, through the efforts of Dale Wood and others, recorded 225 varieties of birds habituating the lagoon during a 12-month period.
Young Maxton Brown was a resident of Carlsbad and an ardent bird lover at the time that a great move was being made in 1939 to create a bird sanctuary at the Buena Vista lagoon. The move won the support of 55 organizations in Oceanside, 23 in Carlsbad, 21 in Encinitas and 35 in Vista.
Brown and his father are supposed to have catalogued the birds they saw here in great detail. Young Max worked with the San Diego Zoological Gardens and with the Department at San Diego State College.
But the refuge value was being threatened each year by bird hunters and water lowering.
Each year the Carlsbad Mutual Water Co. and the State Highway Department let water out of the lagoon to protect the highway and the water line services. This left nothing but mud flats and bad odor and no water for the birds.
First step in the right direction was passage of a County Ordinance on June 5, 1959, prohibiting shooting around the lagoon. Two weeks to a day later the Buena Vista Lagoon Association board directors was formed with members Robert W. Baird, E. L. Chandler, Wm. H. Brevoort, T. Lloyd Park, Louise H. Keith, C. J. Fennel and C. Williams.
Late in 1939, the association erected signs for tourist information.
A letter written May 4, 1940, to Dr. Clifford E. Brodie announced the shooting ordinance and billboards, plus the fact that $3,000 gathered from property owners around the lagoon and interested citizens was wherewithal for installation of five 30-inch pipes with gates and locks to control flood waters and regulate the water level.
A. C. Anderson and Kenyon Keith permitted them to anchor the pipe system on pilings driven deep into the sands on their lands. They also drilled 174 feet on the beach front for a salt water well that would be pumped in summer to purify the water and kill the vegetation.
That same month, another set of tubes was purchased and installed to maintain a satisfactory water level throughout the summer and perhaps even permitting the use of canoes and small boats in the area.
During the early part of World War II, Maxton Brown became "Missing in Action," so as a memorial; the City of Carlsbad named the sanctuary after “Lt. Maxton Brown."
In 1944, when the lagoon north shore became a part of the City of Oceanside, they had to circulate another petition to get another no-shooting ordinance passed in Oceanside.
Another threat in 1950 led the association to form “The Buena Vista Lagoon Protective Association" and hire attorney Phil Swing, a legal water authority, to offset R. L. Thibodo’s desires to dam up and export the runoff from Buena Vista Creek into the lagoon.
As a result of the valiant fight by citizens to maintain the sanctuary well the State Wildlife Conservation Board in 1952 voted $75,620 for converting the site into a wildlife refuge and recreational area.
But a string was attached and the offer qualified. They could spend $19,000 for preliminary work with the rest held in abeyance until sufficient underground water sources were tapped to assure a freshwater lagoon. Once constructed, the wildlife refuge would then be maintained and operated by the county.
So the arrangements, the efforts of years of work, resulted in stalemate in the end. At most, they have protected the site from commercialism.
The Buena Vista Lagoon Association owns approximately 75 acres of submerged land in the lagoon. The package was conveyed in a deed from the William G. Kerckhoff Co. of Los Angeles on August 27, 1940. All-told, there are about 200-240 acres of land submerged or partially submerged.
Mention of this biological genus in the bird category brings us to the admonition “Watch for the chickens as you go through Carlsbad," from parents to children down through the years since the huge chickens were erected as a landmark for the "Twin Inns."
These markers are strongly symbolic, for at “Twin Inns" they serve fried chicken "Nothing But" according to waysigns along the highway.
E. G. Kentner, owner and manager, took over on November 5, 1919. He purchased the Gerhard Schutte home of the two almost identical houses in the same block. The other, on the north, the Wadsworth home, had been converted to an inn in 1895. Under the management of T. J. Riley it had become the Carlsbad Inn" where they served "chicken dinners everything." After becoming a fire hazard, it was razed in 1950.
Kentner's "Twin Inn dinery can handle 3500 patrons daily with 19 employees. His name as "Eddie, of the Twin Inns," is known by many famous persons whose names can be found in the Inns' guestbook.
Entrance to the “Twin Inns" is through a homey, old fashioned hallway decorated with oil-painted panels into a large reception room, thence into the delightful octagonal dining room overlooking one of the finest private parks on the entire Pacific coast. The dining room will service 500 people. All woodwork and furniture is painted in soft cream and an excellent dance floor gives waiting guests a chance to while away their time enjoyably.
Remodeling took place between 1922 and 1926. The rotunda (octagonal dining room), now the main dining room, in 1922; the Turkish and Temple rooms in 1924 and the present kitchen in 1926.
The Mecca cocktail lounge is decidedly oriental or Asian in motif, with sliding doors resembling temple design that can be thrown open to combine the lounge and Temple rooms into one.
Gardens can be viewed from the east windows of the rotunda salon. Murals are by the late J. Morton Patterson, a local artist.
The Turkish room, a recent addition to the Mecca bar features a slave market scene and a moonlit harem bathing scene from the brush of Eugene Taylor in the comparatively new medium of black light.
The lower half of the Inn is open to the public; the upper half is the Kentner residence.
Entrance to the restaurant has been changed to open on the west instead of the south. The lobby was completely changed from the original and improvements were made in the upstairs living quarters.
Churches as the spiritual backbone of a community, provide uplifting, continually unfolding Christian guidelines for living; hope for the hopeless, confidence for the unsure, emanating assurance from the more stable, strengthening the weak and inspiring the strong ~a core of tranquility in the hubbub; of any times; founded on faith, thriving on love, nurturing sincerity. Thus, the churches take their cultural place in the limelight alongside businesses, schools, government and civic organizations as an important quotient of progress and permanence.
Even as Carlsbad was reaching out for recreation of foreign atmospheres in the "Twin Inns," the name Carlsbad, Calif. was reaching out into other countries of the world influencing migration here.
Particularity affected was England, distributed with exceptionally attractive posters of the area, accompanied information on the opportunities abounding here. English young gentlemen, with no hope of coming into an estate in their own land, sought out Carlsbad to seek their fortune and estate among its promises.
One church chiefly feeling the influence of the Englishmen was St. Michael's Episcopal Church of Carlsbad.
In Gertrude T. Hammond's writing on the establishment of St. Michael’s here, she mentioned that the Englishman's reaction when they finally arrived here, found no great river surrounded by verdant lands or offshore ocean traffic of great sea—going vessels was not a matter of record.
“Were any of them so discouraged that they returned to England?" was the question put to a parishioner of St. Michael's, who as a young boy was one of this original community. “Of course not!" he replied, indignantly, ’They just got busy immediately planting orchards and making themselves as comfortable as they could."
Most of the English settled in San Luis Rey, but others came farther south to Carlsbad and the territory between here and Encinitas.
One of the primary concerns any English colony is its church, and little time was wasted establishing an Episcopal mission at San Luis Rey. Funds came from friends and families in England. The grassroots help came from the energetic Father William E. Jacobs, a young missionary priest from Oceanside. The Rev. Jacobs, mission was consecrated in 1892. Two years later. St. Michael’s Episcopal Church in Carlsbad was consecrated, also served by Fr. Jacobs.
The Episcopal padre had been born in Belfast, Ireland. He came to Oceanside in 1888, But enroute across the country, he stopped in Iowa long enough to establish a mission which is now the thriving parish of St. Paul in Sioux City.
Gertrude Hammond said he was well-known and clearly loved: a giant of a man, physically and spiritually, with a voice to match his size. A pioneer resident remembered that on an otherwise quiet morning, Fr. Jacobs could be heard trotting along the road from the south on his way home from some distant parish duty and, over the clatter of the horse’s hoofs, his voice loudly and continuously proclaimed his faith in stirring, militant hymns.
This probably awakened residents for miles around, she said, especially when the wooden trestle bridge was crossed over Buena Vista Lagoon. His voice rose in volume to accommodate the clatter of accompaniment.
His stables on Cassidy St. in Oceanside, housed a number of thoroughbreds, and his love of those animals was only slightly subjugated to his love of humanity. Later, the horses gave way to a two cylinder motor car.
The San Luis Rey flood of 1916 not only damaged the Episcopal Church there, but apparently wiped out many of the ranches. Official records of the Missions of the Episcopal Diocese in 1919 simply said of the members of the San Luis Rey church: "They have all moved away.”
In 1918, though, a Community Program Survey of Carlsbad listed as educational Facilities: One public school with 12 pupils and one teacher, a lending library at the country store and St. Michael's church school.
During the two decades that Fr. Jacobs ministered to the mission of St. Michael's, he founded and served as priest for a total of eight missions in addition to serving the previously established Episcopal Church in Oceanside. His work extended to Del Mar, Escondido, Fallbrook and Murrieta. In 1913 he retired and the following year died in Los Angeles.
Missionary priests served St. Michael’s until 1953 when the Rev. John Bradley Lockerby was appointed vicar. In the spring of 1958, before Fr. Lockerby had an opportunity to see his growing congregation attain their new church site, he moved to Seattle where he became rector at St. Paul's.
In July, 1958, Rev. Andrew D. Milstead became vicar of St. Michael's. In January, 1959, the old St. Michael’s church buildings were moved from their original location on Oak St, Between Carlsbad Blvd. and. Lincoln St, to the new site at the corner Carlsbad Blvd. and Cedar St, to stand alongside a more modern church building.
Several pioneer parishioners of St. Michael's on recent rolls were Mrs. Florence Magee whose parents Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Hamilton Shipley helped to found the church; Mr. and Mrs. Fred J. Ramsay (Mr. Ramsay has died, since) who were among the early English settlers in this area and Anthony Shaw, brother of Mrs. Ramsay, who assisted in building the original church building.
Father William O’Dwyer of St. Patrick's Catholic Church, Carlsbad, said that until late 1926, there was no Catholic Church here.
However, Franciscan Fathers from Mission San Luis Rey regularly visited Carlsbad to hold religious instruction for the few children not attending San Luis Rey's Convent School.
The first Catholic Church here is now serving as the Children's Library of the City of Carlsbad. It had been made possible through a $2,000 gift from The Catholic Church Extension Society of Chicago and land at the corner of Harding and Oak donated by Mr. and Mrs. Charles Kreutzkamp.
Fr. Philomen of the Franciscan Fathers was placed in charge of the building program by Bishop John J. Cantwell of Los Angeles, to whose diocese all of Southern California belonged.
During construction, Holy Mass was offered in a vacant store on Grand Ave., with a battered counter as altar and planks placed across boxes as pews; however spotless linens and many flowers transformed the atmosphere satisfactorily.
Upon completion of the building, Fr. Philomen found himself with a congregation of 50, including children. The congregation cleaned and decorated the church and children vied with each other to ring the church bell, a gift from Santa Fe Railway, for services.
Fr. Philomen’s death in 1928 brought other priests from the Old Mission: Fr. Ferdinand, who served six years, and Fathers Dominic, Luke, Alphonse, Raphael, Angelus, and 80 year old Fr. Guadalupe who made the trip on foot from San Luis Rey twice a week.
Upon the division in 1936 of the old Diocese of Monterey and Los Angeles, to which Carlsbad belonged, and the erection of the new Diocese of San Diego, taking in the four southernmost counties, the new Bishop, the Most Reverend Charles F. Buddy believed that many churches without pastors were large enough to become parishes.
St. Mary, Star of the Sea in Oceanside and St. Patrick's, Carlsbad, were separated from jurisdiction of the Franciscan Fathers the Old Mission. St. Patrick's was served by visiting priests of the Diocese of San Diego who maintained a residence in either Oceanside or Vista.
Other diocesan priests serving St. Patrick's in mission status were Fr. Norman Raley, in his 90's, now retired in Los Angeles; Fr. Daniel Ryan, since elevated to rank of Right Reverend Monsignor and pastor of St. Bernadine’s parish, San Bernardino; Fr. Robert McEwen, chaplain at St. Bernadine’s Hospital, San Bernardino, and Fr. Michael O'Connor, also a Right Reverend Monsignor, pastor of St. John the Evangelist Church in San Diego.
Bishop Buddy appointed Fr. Anthony P. Kasper as the first resident pastor of St. Patrick's and separated it From the Catholic Church in Vista. Fr. Kasper took up residence in a house located at the northwest corner of Harding and Oak Streets. Financed by a loan from the Diocese of San Diego, property was purchased and St. Patrick's hall, rectory and church were built.
Successive administrators of St. Patrick's were Fr. Alfred Geimer, appointed on October 27, 1956; Fr. Joseph Prince, January 28, 1957, and in May of the same year turned over the administration to the present pastor, Fr. William A. O'Dwyer.
The growing congregation brought to the staff the Reverend Valentine Vehovec in September, 1958, as assistant pastor. With more than 500 in the congregation, St. Patrick's is already working toward the construction of a parochial school and convent for occupancy in 1962.
Prior to 1935, when the Carlsbad Gospel Tabernacle moved into its own building at Tyler and Oak Streets during the ministry of the Rev. Arthur Casey, their worship had been conducted in Oceanside, where the church came into being
Formation of the church was an outgrowth of prayer meetings in Carlsbad and Oceanside homes and was the first in the area with a distinct "Pentecostal" emphasis.
Their location in a rented hall in the 200 block on North Freeman, Oceanside, had as the first minister, the Rev. Marjorie Cable for two years. She was followed by the Reverends Walter Harris, Earl Opie, Roy Foster, Verna Poe, George Scott, and Arthur Casey.
During the Rev. Harris’ ministry, the church became affiliated with the Southern California District of the Assemblies of God.
At the initial Carlsbad location, successive pastors were the Reverends George Perkins, Paul Franklin, Oscar Kappers, E. W. Mincey and Hiram Brooks, within an 18~year span.
Under the ministry of the Rev. Mincey, purchase was begun for the property at Elm and Jefferson Streets where the present church stands. Work began in earnest under leadership of the Rev. Brooks in the true religious community spirit, with members donating the labor and concluding the project of the sanctuary and youth hall in early 1953.
The present pastor, the Rev. Philip Zimmerman, arrived in May, 1954. Material additions since include an educational annex for Sunday school and a new parsonage at 3035 Harding St. The completed sanctuary, youth hall and educational facilities have been conservatively valued at $100,000. Construction remained debt-free, on a pay-as-you-go basis.
A recent addition to the staff is the pastor's assistant, the Rev. Ronald Anderson, to help perpetuate the church whose motto is "The Church where Christ is Supreme."
Iglesia Metodista Wesleyana (Wesleyan Methodist Church) has been a church for the Spanish-speaking people since 1924 when the Rev. James Spencer and his wife arrived.
The first services were held in a tent on Pine Ave., and later in a residence immediately south of the present location at 3329 Roosevelt St.
In 1927, the Rev. John Henley and wife Ruth replaced the Spencer's who were assigned to mission work in Peru. Request for another worker from the Mission Board brought Miss Ruth Nichols in late 1931 from her home conference in Enid, Okla.
Services were started in Oceanside and Vista. Although Miss Nichols later took up residence in Oceanside, she continued to assist in all three locations with the music and Bible instruction. She later became Mrs. Jose Sanchez; other workers who followed were the Misses Shirley Hoag, Delores Lobdell and Roma Lapham (Mrs. Alberto Acuna). (Note: according to video Barrio voice Ruth Nichols married Alberto Acuna)
The Henleys were succeeded around 1953 by Cecil and Helen Katz. A year later they were followed by the Rev. Hermann Perez who later left to work in Mexico. Mrs. Ruth Sanchez was interim pastor before moving to the post supervisor in Cananea, Sonora, Mexico. The Rev. Henley returned to minister until 1958 when the present pastors, William and Marilyn Butcher came to serve.
Services are held in English and Spanish and include Sunday school, worship services, Bible study and prayer services.
The Church of Christ, Carlsbad, like other churches in the community oftentimes did, found its way here via Oceanside. Under the trusteeship of the late James H. McKaig, the group rotated its meetings between the Carlsbad VFW Building, the McKaig ranch in Vista, and the North Carlsbad community clubhouse. Mr. McKaig's dream to see the church in a building of its own was partially fulfilled when he witnessed the beginning of construction prior to his death.
The congregation had purchased property on the comer of Oak and Pio Pico in June of 1954 and began construction of the chapel in May 1957.
In January 1958, construction was well enough along that services could be held regularly. The chapel was dedicated on April 15, 1958.
According to John McKaig, teaching in the Church of Christ is accomplished by lay members. The church is dedicated to the belief that Christ is the only Head. With no earthly headquarters, each congregation is autonomous. The church has no creed other than that of the New Testament and no doctrine other than that taught by the Apostles.
Twenty-Five members worked toward the dream of one of its most faithful workers ~ to have their own church.
The First Baptist Church of Carlsbad, organized on Nov. 4, 1956, originally met in the Woman's clubhouse until it was demolished.
They then moved to the Scout Center where services were held.
Andrew Channell reported that the first pastor was the Rev. “Walter Crabb, followed by the Rev. Joe Ellison who was replaced by the Rev. Ray Riley, freeing Ellison for service as a U. S. Army Chaplain.
With an enrollment of 58 members, the church purchased three acres of land on Pio Pico, between Tamarack and Magnolia. On April 20, 1959, when work was begun on the building, the church had 71 members, and except the supervision and inspection, most of the work was done by the members. The new Building was completed in December, 1959, and the next month the dedication service was held. In April, 1960 Rev. Ray Riley resigned because of ill health and two months later Rev. L. D. Hendon was called as the pastor.
"The history of the Carlsbad Union Church," said the Rev. R. D. Brokenshire "organized in 1925, actually begins in 1922 when some of the founders canvassed the community to find out if the residents favored the organization of church.
Young mothers responded with a request for a Sunday School. The Misses Sara Troutman and Marion Holmes heard of the need, issued a call for the first meeting on May 14, 1922, and the first regular sessions began a week later.
On Nov. 16, 1924, 40 charter members initiated the new independent Union Church and shortly thereafter the Sunday school transferred its assets to the church and the two were combined.
The Rev. C. N. Thomas served as volunteer pastor for several weeks and was succeeded on Jan. 1, 1925 by the Rev. T. E. Stevens, a retired Methodist minister.
Groundbreaking ceremonies for the first church building were held in May, 1925. Completion and dedication followed in February 1926. Practically all the labor was donated by members and friends of the new church.
Two years later the Christian Endeavor group built its own Young Peoples room at the rear of the church property and in 1929 built a manse for the pastor: the Ladies Union supervised the furnishing of the manse. The first phase the church's expansion ended in the early years of the depression with the building a row of frame class rooms~ again with donated labor.
At the close of World War II, expansion needs inspired a master plan with the first project a new Primary Wing, completed in 1947. There followed a recreation area and later the erection of the Lee Ruse Memorial Hall.
During these years, the work of the church was carried on through the services of eight pastors; the Reverends Thomas and Stevens, A. V. McVey, A.A. Heinlein, Doctor Ernest Raynor, the Reverends C. E. Hertzler, Floyd Gresset and the present pastor, Roy D. Brokenshire.
Construction was started on January 13th of the following additions to the Carlsbad Union Church plant:
a) Children’s Building, 7200 square feet, eleven classrooms of various sizes, Sunday school office and toilet facilities.
b) Church Administration Unit, 1600 square feet, consisting of office and study for the pastor, offices for the secretary and Director of Christian Education, storage room, and mimeograph and work room.
c) Choir Room, 400 square feet, provides storage space for choir robes and music. The Administration Unit and Choir Room will adjoin the proposed new sanctuary when it is built on the corner of Pine and Harding Streets, and is designed so that a second story may be added, if and when necessary. These buildings were completed on June 7, 1958 and dedicated at a special ceremony held on July 27. To further complete the Master Building Plan, the 50' lot north of the new Children's Building on Harding Street was purchased. Subsequently the old house on the property was razed, and an engineer hired to draft specifications to make this into a recreation area and a parking lot. Sidewalks and curbs were installed on Pine Street and Harding Street, and the recreation area paved and night lighted, with ornamental concrete block walls and gates to complete the project. The improvements initiated and completed in the past three years have cost over $225,000.
In 1954 Rev. Forest H. Woodside, retiring minister of the Encinitas Methodist Church was added to the church staff as Minister of Visitation, and is still employed in this capacity. Rev. Leonard Showalter joined the staff in 1957, from which position he left to accept his first pastorate in the Baptist Church of Poway, Calif. Rev. Gene Warren, industrial chaplain with the Letourneau Company in Mississippi, became a member of the staff in 1958 as Associate Minister with responsibility in the area of Ministry to Youth.
Membership in the Church is now standing at 925, and will pass the 1000 mark in 1961.
Sunday school membership of nearly 650 has a staff of 60 teachers. Church membership at the end of 1958 had increased to 817 members, with 700 resident members. Two duplicate morning services were necessary to provide them Sunday worship.
The organization of a Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints in this area came about primarily through the activities of one man- Martinus Andersen, former manager of the Carlsbad Safeway.
Martin and Elizabeth Andersen explained that on Nov. 2, 1941, a branch was officially established here, with meetings held in Carlsbad Women’s Clubhouse.
The first meeting was attended by the 75 members, nearly all of whom lived in or near Carlsbad. The new branch climaxed the six months’ activity of a Sunday school, started by Andersen.
During the war, servicemen From Camps Callan, Miramar, Pendleton and others swelled the ranks of the group and the Carlsbad branch was able to purchase land for its present building at 709 Leonard Street, in Oceanside.
Fundraising projects followed, and in November, 1951, eleven years after its organization, the church broke ground for its own edifice. The building was completed in 1954 and dedicated on April 17, 1955, under the close supervision of Andersen and President George Williams, his counselors and building committee.
In that portion of any well-rounded community that considers the advancement and welfare of its peoples, the schools are found -be it by the tailgate of a covered wagon on a long, cross-country move, in basement, one-room shack or formally departmentalized system - and rival the importance of food and shelter.
John Lincoln Kelly's remembrance, focused on the school system, indicates that when he was five years old in 1872, the school district was formed as "Hope District."
John's home at that time was at the Old Matthew Kelly homestead where the Leo Carrillo home now stands.
The district was bounded on the south By San Elijo creek, meeting the Pacific immediately south of the present site of Cardiff, on the west by the ocean, on the north by Agua Hedionda Creek emptying into the ocean just south of Carlsbad, and on the east he knew not where. The closest district he believed in existence east of here was at Julian.
A school at San Luis Rey, about 3.2 miles from his home was organized into its own district about the same time as the "Hope District," according to Kelly. Of his school, he speaks familiarly.
It was a one-room wooden school with one door, two small windows, earthen floor and about 14 feet square, built by neighbors. From three families, 25 students were drawn.
Nine children each were sent by the Feeler Family from what is now known as “Green Valley." and the Adams, from a mile east of “San Marcos Lagoon or Slough" and the Kelly Family, seven.
The flea infested floor was irksome to the teacher whose riddance measure was to wet it. Mistakenly believing the teacher wasn’t watching, the boys would dig their toes into the dampened earth and sling the mud at a chosen target. For this, they paid with "hide."
In 1877, the students added 10 or 12 feet to the room size by digging into a hall behind the tiny schoolhouse under the supervision of another teacher, the kindly Mr. Kay. The children had six or eight months of school each year in ungraded classes. Each teacher was on his or her own to categorize the students according to their ability to learn and in the process, retrogressed some.
Dr. Walter L. Glines, former Union School district superintendent, said he was unsure about the date the first school in Carlsbad was built, but the Carlsbad Union School District was formed in 1921. An old 1894 picture of the first Carlsbad schoolhouse showed its only teacher, the late Mrs. Hattie Reece Schutte, posed outside with a handful of students.
Prior to 1921, there were four elementary schools in the 35.5 square miles of the present district. One in Oceanside was the South Oceanside School District, separate from Oceanside and now known as North Carlsbad; the Calavera School which much later drew into the eastern section the Kelly and Borden children "and nearly wrecked the Carlsbad School" (Glines) because it dangerously lowered their daily attendance average; the Laguna School District, on the first ridge east of Ponto Junction and south of Terramar, which reverted back to the owners of the property when the school was abandoned, and the Carlsbad School, situated on the grounds of the present Pine Ave. school.
In the Carlsbad Journal of Feb. 27, 1931, the late Mrs. Hattie Reece Schutte, one of the first Carlsbad school teachers, said of the early school, when she came here to teach in 1894,...."there were still 36 children. . . but some of them had to come from a long distance, so the Calavera district was formed. This took away the Marron, Kelly and the Borden children. People began to move away and the children in the school grew less in numbers each year until the average reached 5.5. Had it gone any lower, our district would have lapsed.”
In its darkest moment, the school welcomed the Charles Kreutzkamp children, the Youngs, Carpenters, Ortegas and others from farmland now beginning to prominently dot the landscape.
The Pre-1894 school building became too small in 1924 or 1925 and the school board began planning for expansion. An offer of a three-acre gift for the new site at Highland and Oak was turned down because it was "too far from town."
Mr. Copeland, clerk of the board, resigned and was replaced by young Dewey McClellan. The board next planned a seven room school plan under the bonding capacity or debt limit of $16,000. County Superintendent Ada York (Allan) opposed the idea for she felt the new plant couldn't be built for that price. Mr. Dalton, a local builder, agreed to tackle the construction: his wife drew up the plans and specifications, thus eliminating architect’s fees. During the summer vacation, the old building was torn down and the new hollow tile unit made ready for timely occupancy in September. The cost was $15,000.
As of September, 1928, the school consisted of administration offices. storerooms, ten classrooms, a Boy Scout log cabin and a shack behind the administration building which housed coal, wood and miscellaneous junk.
The first district superintendent was Mrs. Blanche C. Crane (retired) of Oceanside, until succeeded in 1934 by Floyd Lindsley. Next was Raymond L. Spaugh, 1935-1941, than Walter L. Glines, an eighth grade teacher since 1928 and former vice principal under all three previous superintendents. Dr. Glines' office began July 1, 1941 and ended on his retirement, June 30, 1958.
Others associated with the school strongly identified themselves with the program and applied themselves unselfishly.
One was board member Calvin J. Young, nine years with the organization, most of the time clerk of the Board. He was described as a "pusher" by Walter Glines. "Others", Glines said, “advised or acquiesced, but Cal Young pushed."
He cited some examples of the Cal Young "pushing".
At a time when three or four acres were considered enough for a school site, he pushed through the purchase of all the lots bounded by the buildings on Pine Ave. Harding St, Chestnut and the west alley. Most of the lots cost $35; three cost $50 each.
During the Great Depression, Cal pushed and pushed until the P.W.A. (Public Works Administration) furnished the materials to build a reinforced shell around the Schutte Building, then persuaded the W.P.A. (Works Progress Administration) to furnish the labor.
During World War II fear of Japanese bombing on this coast drove the excited citizenry into a series of meetings to settle disaster plans, particularly to stake out possible hospital facilities. It seemed logical to use the schools. But the California school system does not permit the use of school property or school funds for anything other than education.
School administrators sought legal counsel and advice from higher authority. More and more meetings were held. However, a week later Carlsbad’s school auditorium was equipped with a 1,000 gallon auxiliary water tank, a large electric light plant and other items necessary to convert the building into an auxiliary hospital. Young pushed through these purchases, Glines said, possibly drawing on the United States Constitutional phrase "to promote the general welfare" for his authority.
Glines' hat was tipped also to Maurice Baird: janitor, custodian, night and day watchman, and roofer, and repairman, electrician, heating system expert, plumber, gardener and general manager of a non-certified work, since 1941. A former Nebraska farm boy, he worked hard, giving full value for every dollar he received. His mild manner, understanding of what was to be done and willingness to work often gave him more responsibility to bear than should be expected.
Maurice Baird was said to have cared for Carlsbad School as though it was his very own.
In the school office, Maurice's counterpart was Miss Mildred Dawson, better known by her given name. For 18 years, "Mildred” served as clerk, secretary, adviser, registrar, assistant nurse, attendance officer, bus driver, librarian, switchboard operator, duplicating clerk and substitute teacher. She never measured a day's work in terms of eight hours, but always worked until the job was done.
After the administration building was built in 1928, more classrooms and other facilities were needed. The Woman's Club building was bought and in the late ‘30's was moved from its location across Pine St., where the parking lot now is, to its present location. It became the auditorium, cafeteria and kindergarten.
This launched the "Era of Temporaries.”
A temporary building, built by the janitor R. G. Chase and manual training teacher L. Glines, became the first manual training classroom, and then was remodeled for a regular classroom. Today it is used for Special Training Classes.
Another temporary building twice moved across the grounds, served variously as a kindergarten, grade classroom and art room and is today the Home Arts classroom.
A temporary warehouse-garage, costing less than $4,000, had a temporary partition to separate the inside into two classrooms.
The last two temporaries built a number of years later were south of the warehouse-garage.
The public approved all five school bond proposals made from 1946 to 1955. All funds were used to acquire sites and construct classrooms at the Pine St. and Jefferson St. sites. In April, 1957, contractors turned over the Magnolia School containing 10 classrooms, a cafetorium and standard facilities; 10 more classrooms were added in 1958.
Mrs. A. Sawyers, of 1039 Chestnut Ave, Carlsbad, said the Pine School cafeteria system was started around 1928 By Victor Hill and his wife, Maud, from Oceanside, in a small rented house on the northwest corner of the school grounds. The initial fare was a cup of chili beans and two crackers for a nickel, and hamburgers for a dime. Also available were soft drinks and candy.
When a foot ailment of Victor Hill's grew worse, he got Mrs. Sawyers to buy him out. Mrs. Sawyers pled inexperience, but Victor coached her prior to the amputation of both his feet - the eighth graders helped, superintendent Blanche Crane encouraged, and Mrs. Sawyers was launched on her business venture.
Equipment consisted of two old stoves, 47 granite cups. 52 spoons, 1 fry plate, a deep-freeze and one or two other items, including a long table and benches outside under the trees for year-around use. Mrs. Sawyers paid $7.00 rent monthly (later raised to $10) and utilities (water $1.50, electricity $3.50 and gas $1.00) to the owner, Fred Hayes, an Oceanside realtor.
Meanwhile, the school acquired the Woman's Clubhouse and fitted it out with a kitchen, used by the school. Mrs. Sawyers at first was unable to obtain the use of the kitchen, but when objections were set aside by the trustees, it made the work easier and provided a more pleasant place in which to eat.
Her eighth-grade helpers, excused 15 minutes early at noon to prepare the food and serving line in exchange for their lunch, were Helen Fennel, Beth Reid, Jeanette Demler, Phyllis Borden, and John Phelps fried the hamburgers. The Woman's Clubhouse is the auditorium today, so Mrs. Sawyers spoke of it as such. "After moving into the auditorium, in addition to the other things, I prepared paper plate lunches for a dime each."
Some of her plate menus:
Sept 17. 1931 - Beef stew, Spanish beans, carrot salad, jello, bread and butter.
Mar. 7, 1932 - Vegetable soup, Lima Beans, potatoes and gravy, pineapple-tapioca pudding, bread and butter.
May 13, 1932 - Split pea soup, Shepherd Pie, cabbage slaw, bread and butter.
These latter were Depression-time menus, she said; "Many proud men had to go on WPA (Works Progress Administration). Their families had to stand in line for government commodities. My work was a great help in feeding our family of four." In the last few months she was feeding 85 pupils and confided: “my take home daily money was three or four dollars."
From Alfred D. Lafleur comes the picture of the high school development. "Planning for the Carlsbad High School" said Lafleur “began in 1950 when the district superintendent and the governing board concluded that predictable growth in the City of Carlsbad warranted plans for a high school in this area."
On May 10, 1957, the low bid was accepted for construction of an administration building with classrooms, a six-room classroom building, a three-room shop building, a cafeteria building, a shower and locker room building, plus grading and paving.
This was made possible through the community's votes favoring a $1,600,000 bond issue for the construction.
That same month ground was broken with board members Clinton Pedley and Russell Grosse turning the first spade full. On September 13, 1957, Leo E. Anderson, Deputy Grand Master of Grand Lodge of Masons of the State of California set the cornerstone.
A steel casket inside the cornerstone contained the Sept. 1 "Carlsbad Journal" and “Oceanside Blade-Tribune;” the OC District annual report 1956-57; the OC District employees' manual; the first issue of the Carlsbad High School paper; the 1957—58 CHS student handbook; current U. S. coins; the Oceanside Masonic Trestle Board; a copy of the invitation to cornerstone—laying ceremonies; a calendar of the San Diego County Masonic membership and an invitation to the district for the Grand Lodge of Masons to lay the cornerstone.
The first public appearance of the Carlsbad High School Band was at the cornerstone laying, under the direction at Mark Fabrizio, school music director.
Not unlike other organizations, the Carlsbad High School used Oceanside as its springboard into local existence. On Sept. 10, 1957, Carlsbad High School operations began on the Oceanside campus with 387 students and 17 teachers. The student body already had its officers and the school fielded athletic teams - all they lacked was a school of their own in their own town.
It came for them on Feb. 17, 1958, when Carlsbad High School opened its doors in Carlsbad.
On that date, 450 students enrolled and more than 50 subjects were taught at 23 stations by 20 teachers. Their library had more than 3,000 books, their campus extended over 50 acres, their curriculum readied them for four-year cottage or university study and vocational study prepared them for jobs in industry, business, construction or agriculture.
At the time of Mr. Lafleur report, a modern gymnasium was under construction that would seat 1800, serve as home court for basketball games, auditorium for assemblies, social hall for students and a center for the community. Completion was expected in the fall.
Ornamental horticulture classes, as a community service project, were propagating trees for street beautification in Carlsbad.
While the community and its school board "pushers" were busy acquiring educational facilities for the youngsters, the health of the community was being handled by two men, George Wilber Getze and Lewis H. Fairchild.
Wilber Getze was born November 11, 1883, at Tarentum, Pennsylvania, a town founded in the late 15th century by his mother's forebears.
Dr. Getze was educated in the Tarentum public schools and got his medical degree from Hahnemann Medical College, Philadelphia, in 1906. During the First World War he served as a first lieutenant in the U. S. Medical Corps.
In 1920 he took up private practice in Andover, Ohio, and in 1923 bought extensive property in Carlsbad and Riverside, California. In 1926 the family moved to Carlsbad, where Dr. Getze was one of the first two doctors to live and practice, practicing there from 1926 until his retirement in 1953. After practicing in several locations for short periods, the Doctor made his permanent office at 2947 State Street.
During his years in Carlsbad Dr. Getze served the community as a member of the Oceanside-Carlsbad Union High School Board of Education and as a member of the board of directors of the First National Bank of Carlsbad.
St. Michaels-by-the-Sea Church, Carlsbad, possesses several remembrances of Dr. Getze, including a black Japanese pine planted outside the main window behind the altar, a plaque to Our Lady near the font, and altar cloths.
Dr. Getze died April 6, 1960, at Veterans Hospital, Long Beach, leaving his widow and four children, six grandchildren, and one great—grandchild. He is buried at Fort Rosecrans National Cemetery, Point Loma, San Diego.
Lewis Harold Fairchild, M. D., located in Carlsbad on December 15, 1931. He was graduated from the University of Kansas Medical School and served his internship at the Bell Memorial Hospital in Kansas City, Kansas. He has, through the years taken post graduate courses from Stanford, University of California, U.S.C., U.C.L.A., and Loma Linda. His first office was in the Ramsay building on First Street (now State). Five years later he moved into the Ingraham Building on Highway 101 (now Carlsbad Boulevard) in the now occupied by Henry's Beauty Salon. After 10 years there he built his own office from which he practices now at 355 Elm Street. In 1941 Dr. Fairchild built his home on a 15/2 acre lot at 2792 Highland. Before that he lived at the Tibbetts house on Garfield and Pine for five years and five years in the Barnes house on Carlsbad Boulevard.
He has been a member of the Carlsbad Chamber Commerce ever since first coming to town and was secretary and president at various times. He worked actively for Incorporation, securing River water, sewer bond and Tri—City Hospital bond issues. His hobbies are show cats, five-gaited show horses, and lately he is busy on a course in Commercial Art.
Dr. Fairchild has served on the County Board of Health for the past eight years and nine years on the Council of the County Medical Society, representing all the doctors of North San Diego County. He is a member of the California Academy of General Practice and past president of the San Diego County chapter and is also a State delegate. He is a delegate from San Diego County to the California Medical Association. At present besides his office practice he is Medical Director for both the Army and Navy Academy and the Carlsbad-by-the-Sea home for retired people here. He is also Autopsy Surgeon for the Coroner for North San Diego County.
For those of us these days who have our mail practically left on our doorstep, we're apt to take mail delivery for granted. Like electricity and running water, we appreciate it only when it is cut off.
Earlier in this chronicle, speaking of the San Luis Rey flood of 1916 that accentuated results of a widespread rain, it told of men going down to Sorrento Flats. Then boating over to a landing where they picked up mail, rowing back across the Flats and “hoisting" the sacks on their backs, toting them all the way from Del Mar on February 5, the first mail delivery in two weeks. People were waiting for it. They felt the void as acutely as servicemen at the front or isolated on some mid-ocean isle, for mail is a morale factor.
Pre-dating that catastrophe was the recollections of John Lincoln Kelly in "Life on a S. D. Co. Rancho"
" .. . . .For many years our post office was at San Luis Rey, which was twelve miles from where we lived. We used to saddle our horses and ride there to get the mail, thinking no more of the trip than we do now in going a few city blocks.
"But the most convenient mail delivery we had in early days, as I remember it, was when our post office was at 'Old Town, or ‘North San Diego' as it was called. The mail was carried by stage from San Diego to Los Angeles, and these stages passed through the ranch on a road that ran about a mile and a half west of our house. Louis Rose, an old time resident of Old Town, was the postmaster, and he knew our people very well.
"My father nailed a candle box on the top of a post, by the side of the road, and Mr. Rose, instead putting the mail for the Kelly ranch in the regular bag, tied it in a bundle and gave it to the driver, and when he came to our mail box he stopped and deposited in the box any letters or papers there happened to be for us. To have your mail delivered within a mile and a half of your home was like having it delivered now at your door."
The first regularly constituted post office in Carlsbad opened at the corner of Elm and Roosevelt on Jan. 17, 1898 with William McCrea as postmaster. On April 25, 1900, went to Joseph B. Reece, brother of Hattie Reece Schutte the schoolteacher, until Dec. 51. I905.
By then, the post office was located at Grand and Roosevelt. Reece and his niece, Luella Welty, lived in the apartment above the office.
For the next six months the postmaster was Frederick P. Smith, who lived with Lucy and Emilio Wilson for 15 years. Near the end of June, 1903, Frank Knowles (He died a few years ago at age 100) took over, serving until Sept. 22, 1904.
The following day Charles Kreutzkamp became postmaster, his service ending on Oct. 31, 1907. Mr. Kreutzkamp came to Carlsbad in 1898 from Cullman, Alabama, with his wife and six children, two more to be born here). Their first home was at the southwest corner of Harding and Oak; from this house they moved to Grand and Roosevelt “above the Crain store." Mr. Kreutzkamp walked daily to and from Oceanside to his job as shoe repairman for $1.00 a. day. The compensations were increased when he was finally able to operate his own shoe store in that community. While living in the east, Mr. Kreutzkamp had gained valuable experience as a shoe manufacturer.
Upon assuming the position of postmaster, Mr. Kreutzkamp moved his Family to Roosevelt and Laguna Streets where he operated a store in conjunction with the post office. Retiring as postmaster, he then entered the chicken business. This Laguna Street building was to later become the home of Roy and Emma Carpenter and her bachelor brother, Albert Kreutzkamp.
Three of Charles Kreutzkamp’s children still live in Carlsbad: Mrs. Emma Carpenter, Mrs. Minnie Carpenter, and Mrs. Elizabeth Schutte.
Frederick P. Smith returned as postmaster From Nov. 1, 1907 to Oct. 22, 1908, followed by John Edward Keene: whose service ended Mar. 31, 1909 with no successor named.
On April 15 1909, mail service to Carlsbad was discontinued and all mail went to Oceanside.
Two years later Mrs. Marguerite Hayes took the postmaster job and service has been continuous since. She served only a few months and Frederick P. Smith returned the second time, serving to Sept. 30. 1915.
The next postmaster was Roy G. Chase, serving almost five years. Mr. Chase was born in Eugalla, Wisconsin, July 28, 1875. He moved with his wife and three children to San Diego about 1908 and in Carlsbad in 1915, where he opened a grocery store in one room of the depot while he was the station agent. The business expanded, so he leased a building on the site of the present Aguilar building on State Street where he continued in business for several years. He built the Shadel building at the southwest corner of State and Elm and leased it for a general store to Arthur Simpson. Mr. Chase also established and operated for many years the first trucking business in Carlsbad, later expanding it to include a rock and sand business.
During the first years of the delivery of water to Carlsbad from the San Luis Rey Valley and the development of irrigated land by South Coast Land Company, Mr. Chase was a sales agent for that company.
In 1925 Mr. Chase built the two-story masonry building at the southwest corner of State and Grand, leasing it to Mr. and Mrs. C. T. McKeehan who operated it as "Los Diegos Hotel," a favored stopping place for Los Angeles-San Diego travelers. This hotel became a casualty of the state highway move from State Street to the present Carlsbad Boulevard resulting in the Chases taking over the operation of the hotel for some years. They converted it largely to a residential hotel and later sold it.
Mr. Chase died in Carlsbad on May 9, 1950. Members of Mr. Chase's family still living in Carlsbad include one daughter, Mrs. C. D. McClellan, one daughter-in-law, Mrs. Loynal Chase, six grand-children and great-grandchildren.
Mrs. Lillian Polk held the post next, followed by Pliny M. Arnold on Oct. 31, 1924, to serve nine years ending Sept. 4, 1955.
During Arnold’s stint, Carlsbad was elevated on Jan. 1, 1925 from a fourth to a third-class post office, gaining a clerk employee, operating from a building built and leased to the government by T. Hart. That building is now occupied by Garcia's Barbershop on State Street. Arnold married the late Reva Coffin, daughter of Mrs. Mary Coffin.
A. Dewey Newburn was postmaster from 1933 to Nov. 30, 1942. Aimee M. King, next postmaster, saw the post office re-graded to second class at its location on the southwest corner of Grand and State. Mrs. King's resignation brought in the present postmaster, Della C. Clark, on April 2. 1948.
On Nov. 1, 1951, the post office moved to its present location and in July, 1951, became a first-class establishment, its yearly postal receipts exceeding $40,000.
City delivery was established April 1, 1955.
Gross receipts for 1960 reached $96,290. Service over seven routes was accomplished by 10 carriers.
The staff in the office consisted of a postmaster, an assistant and nine clerks. The clerk with the longest service is Irene Possinger who joined the office in September. 1942.
If the pulse beat of community shows up in its newspaper, its temperature shows at the bank.
The city hailed the organization of the First National Bank of Carlsbad in 1927 by the First National Bank of neighboring Oceanside. With a stock of $25,000, the bank opened in what later was the Craig & Fennel Realtors office at 315 First St. (now 2957 State St).
Carlsbad bank officers were McKeehan, president; Kentner, vice-president; S. Stevenson, cashier; L. C. Alles, R. H. Sonneman and Harold Ingraham, directors.
On May 17, 1930, the First National moved to new quarters on the southwest corner of State and Elm. Their capital stock financing was boosted through a gift from many leading Carlsbad citizens of additional ground adjoining the site.
The "Bank Holiday" of February, 1933, closed the Carlsbad First National’s doors when their depository, the First National Bank of Oceanside, failed.
The Federal Reserve-appointed receiver was G. E. Ellingson who collected and distributed 60 per cent of the deposits by Aug. 16, 1935, when the federal government residuary trustees took over 83%.
Residuary trustees Claude J. Fennel (chairman), Dr. George Getze and R. 0. Jones worked without pay under government direction to connect sums from the assets. After deducting expenses of postage, clerical help, printing, and taxes from their collection, they upped the returned per centum to depositors to slightly over 85%.
In the meantime, the Reconstruction Finance Corporation had advanced a loan to the First National in Carlsbad totaling $15,876.47, based on a recoverable potential and a lien against the bank's assets. Repayment to RFC was up to the residuary trustees.
The $15,876.47 immediately went out to depositors, raising their return to 89 and 3/4per cent. The residuary trustees eventually repaid the RFC.
On Jan. 1, 1951, the Bank of America at Oceanside still held 54 checks totaling $514.45, returned as "undeliverable" by the post office, which goes to the State if unc1aimed after about 16 years.
A petition by 1400 Carlsbad residents was honored by establishment of the city's second bank in June, 1950. On June 30, the Security Trust and Savings Bank of San Diego opened a branch on the southeast corner at State and Elm in the old First National building.
In 1954, the bank expanded to more than double its space. On Nov. 1, 1957, the county-wide banking system became a national bank through consolidation and changed its name to a branch of the Security First National Bank.
To have an enterprise start small and grow big here through several generations is a commercial redoubt each community hopes for, encourages and works toward to strengthen community homogeny. To have an enterprise transplant itself from elsewhere and successfully merge with the community for a several generations' stay and continued growth, is not only progress but commendable reciprocation between the community that accepted and the enterprise that stayed. Both reap advantages.
Such an enterprise is the Army and Navy Academy in Carlsbad which came here in 1936 from Pacific Beach. The story of the academy, though, is also the story of the Red Apple Inn, for it was the Inn's property onto which the academy was transplanted.
The infant academy was founded in Pacific Beach in 1910 and was operated as a private partnership between Col. Thomas A. Davis and his brother Maj. Lynch Davis, for the next 26 years.
In the spring of 1936, the move was made to the Red Apple Inn grounds and the partnership evolved into a private corporation. By 1943, the academy had become an organization and purchased From Mr. and Mrs. A. C. Anderson of San Diego the last of their land holdings here. Earlier, in 1937, the academy had bought from them all of the A. G. Blair holdings in Granville Park.
The original Granville Park, upon which the present academy stands, consisted of all the property bordered on the west by the ocean, on the north by a line drawn midway eastward from the ocean extending through the center of the Buena Vista lagoon; on the east by the Santa Fe Railway and on the south by Cypress St, though a few lots were included on the south side of Cypress.
On the original 40 acres, Blair planned the Granville Park real estate undertaking; however, he had sold several lots to the Advent Church Conference of Southern California, still held in their name, for retreats held annually for only several years after acquisition.
Old Highway 101 ran through Granville Park, whose lots 138 to 148, inclusive, fronting the highway, became the 20-bedroom Red Apple Inn. The inn had a large kitchen and dining room and red apple emblems were seen everywhere on every gateway, every piece of china, every piece of furniture and on the light fixtures. Some of these fixtures may yet be seen in the academy’s mess hall.
The Red Apple Inn opened its doors about July 1, 1927. When the inn shut down was not publicized, but it is known that the president of the academy, Col. C. Atkinson, as a captain, ate his first Thanksgiving dinner in California at the Inn before it failed.
The Atkinsons had come to Carlsbad from Pacific Beach for that dinner with friends, little realizing that within a few years they would be working on that very site.
That Thanksgiving they tasted of the excellent cuisine that had been deliberately designed to draw trade, in surroundings that had been created to please and in an atmosphere fitting of a resort. Mrs. Margaret B. Drought, manager, had come here after managing the Vista Inn and the Los Angeles Vanity Fair Inn, both popular eating places. No men were employed at the Red Apple Inn. Pretty girls served avocado dishes and old fashioned menus centered on the “mighty apple."
Laid out in this old Spanish style building was a dining room for 120 patrons, an outdoor patio which accommodated 140 and an intimate balcony dining area overlooking the ocean for private parties of 75. This one building was the beginning of the present day academy and is now known as Fegan Hall. The academy now has five dormitories, seven one-room cottages, an administrative building containing a combination auditorium-gymnasium and 12 classrooms.
A separate library building holds more than 5,000 volumes, a recreation building is located on the beach parkway, and a separate building is set aside for faculty and the Virginia Powell Atkinson Memorial Chapel, complete with pipe organ, seats 375.
Two organizations, whose names have appeared in earlier accounts that traced the history of Carlsbad upward to our time, are the Woman's Club and the Boy Scouts.
Both organizations serve the community well, but since the Woman’s Club is the oldest social organization here, and their distant status rates courtesy, they shall be handled first, although the Scouts first made their appearance in 1923.
In 1925 the Woman's Club was formed on April 10 in the home of Mrs. Mark Coffin, the first secretary. The club's historian, Mrs. A. Sawyers, said that the club grew out of a need a combination intellectual study group and social group. Since most of the women had children, it was first a child study group in conjunction with the Parent-Teachers Association. This specialized group did not sufficiently meet their needs so the women of Carlsbad met in the Coffin home and organized the Woman's Club.
Their get-up-and-go down through the years saw them in and out of two clubhouses, carved a wholesome reputation for an effective community relationship, put them in the national limelight and in recent years left them with a "kitty" more than $25000 which they're just "itchin'" to put toward a community center. (Since this history was compiled, land has been purchased on Monroe St).
A pre-organizational meeting at the Coffins on April 1, 1925, is the first entry in their historical records. At this meeting were Mmes. Wheldon, Maxwell, Arnold, Earhart, Hubbard and the hostess. Sixteen women attended the April 10 session and committees were formed to write a constitution, bylaws and prepare only four days later the group adopted the constitution and bylaws in the home of Mrs. Locke Perkins. On May 1, they elected officers at Mrs. Ella Craig's home.
Their charter closed on July 3, 1925, hearing the names of Mmes. P. J. Weldon, L. C. Alles, Mark Coffin, G. Y. Baker, Arthur Simpson, Magnus Tait, E. H. Hubbard, Nell Connell, R. G. Chase, Sam D. Fraser, Charles Billips, Sam King, W. Brown, Mable Hagler, W. A. Donnell, Ella Craig, Luther Gage, Locke Perkins, Janet Offutt, J. E. D. Minot, Herman Neiman, John Dalton, Alfred Schutte, C. D. McClellan, Samuel J. Reigle, Ella Brand Parker, Emma Hendricks. Ira Spencer, Angie Welch, W. A. Maxwell, Bella Hall, J. J. Geib and the Mrs. Shears and Kaufman.
On Nov. 6, 1925, they became federated, and on July 25, 1927, became incorporated.
They bought two lots at Fourth and Pine on March 19, 1926, for a clubhouse while meeting in the Carlsbad Union Church. Their building fund began on Feb. 19, 1927, with $10. Fund-raising included serving dinners For the Carlsbad Chamber of Commerce.
On Jan. 6, 1928, the building committee got the go-ahead and in June, the informal opening was held in the completed building.
Some of their subsequent activities were: urging everyone to exercise the right to vote, domestic water issue, petitioning for sparing trees on Elm, Oak, Grand and Pine Streets, hacking the sanitary district proposals, holding rummage sales, Spanish classes, teenage misses' parties and supporting the legislation for World War I disability compensations.
The Great Depression's impact on Carlsbad caused the women to sell their clubhouse to the city elementary school district for $4522.50 on Dec. 1, I931. They met in each other‘s houses. For large affairs, they sought out the packing house, better known as "Craig's Hall.”
One incident well illustrates their gumption. The newly formed Chamber of Commerce was to host some very important businessmen from Los Angeles at an evening dinner in the packing house
The women were undaunted by the fact that the packing house had no heat, no gas and no electricity. Cooking was done on a kerosene stove. All appointments, including linen, must be brought from the homes of members. This, they were ready to take in their stride.
“First they weren't prepared for the shock of finding tons of fertilizer stored in the shed when they arrived to prepare for the evenings dinner. They broke out brooms, mops, hoses; scrub brushes and buckets and their husbands.
By evening, the place was sparkling, charmingly decorated and set for a delicious, beautifully served dinner.
One of their notable participations was the serving of avocado ice cream, cake and salads during the years of the Avocado Festival.
With the depression behind them, the Woman's Club began laying plans in May, 1937 for a new clubhouse. On Dec. 8, 1937, they held their first meeting in the completed clubhouse at Elm and Madison Sts., which also served as a community center.
During World War II it was used variously for Red Cross sewing, first aid classes, civil defense meetings and other wartime projects.
They decided to sponsor a Junior Woman's Club in the fall of 1948 during the presidency of Mrs. E. Sutton, and on Nov. 10, the junior unit held its first meeting. Mrs. Denny was elected president.
Sections within the club for particular interests were virtually non-existent prior to World War II, when mention was made of a literature section. This became inactive but in 1946 was re-formed and after a year or two separated from the club as the Philologians. The club's literature section was re-formed again in 1955.
Other sections are American Home, Arts and Crafts and Drama.
In early 1951 they sponsored a club for the men and women over 60 years of age, later called the Friendship Club and extended the use of the clubhouse twice monthly.
Luncheons and guest meetings outgrew their little clubhouse in January, 1953, so these functions were held in Lee Ruse Hall of the Union Church; all other meetings and civic activities were still held in the clubhouse.
Plans for a larger clubhouse failed, even though the City of Carlsbad tentatively considered several helpful measures after incorporation in 1953.
Their plans climaxed in an offer to the city of $21,000 and a lot for a community Center.
This offer, plus pledges of cooperation that amounted to a proposed $25,000 gift, came to the attention of Sears-Roebuck, then conducting the Community Betterment contest. This brought the club national attention.
The city, though, had the proposal under consideration for three and a half years before the club felt obliged to withdraw it.
Samplings of their activities of recent years include sponsoring the charter For California Scholarship Federation and the Girl Scouts and Horizon troops, participating in Carlsbad High School's Lancer Day parade, contributing to Christmas Basket Welfare fund, Chamber of Commerce's street decorating, city library magazine subscriptions, American Field Service Exchange student, Boys Club and club federation projects, Pennies for Pines, Penny Art, school kits for Hong Kong and Viet Nam through CARE, scholarship aids to a CHS home economics student, a student to Girls‘ State, Teacher of the Year, citizenship award to all four CHS grades and sponsoring the Spring Holiday zany Hat Breakfast.
Craig's Hall, the packing house, like the Quaker's meeting places of colonial days, became the center of much of the community's activities not only the Woman's Club larger affairs, but of others. Among those was the first Boy Scout troop here, Troop 784. Since 1923, with the exception of one year, 1930, the troop has been continuously active.
Over the years, various sponsors such as the Chamber of Commerce, VFW, Men's Fellowship of St. Michael's Episcopal Church, the American Legion and a group of citizens, led up to Troop 784’s present sponsor that took over in 1942, the Carlsbad Union church.
From 1947 to 1951 the Union Church also sponsored the SCH Scout Ship "Falcon," with 35 boys and 15 leaders in her log.
In 1955, Troop organized under sponsorship of the Holy Name Society.
In 1956 The Union Church founded Explorer Post 784 for older boys under leader Ralph Walton. This gave them a full “family” of Scouting under the Union church roof for besides the troop, the Explorer post and Sea Scout Ship, they already had started a pre-Scout age unit in “1941-42, Cub Pack 784, with Maurice Baird as cubmaster for nine years.
In 1955, Cub Pack 784 under cubmaster Ralph Walton became so large, it was split three ways, the two new units Pack 782, sponsored By St. Michael's Episcopal Church, Harold B. Wright cubmaster, and Pack 760, cubmaster Richard Ohanneson, which no longer functions.
Carlsbad can boast of over 2100 Boy Scouts and 775 adult leaders since the first troop was formed here. And among true leaders, it has an enviable number of men chosen to receive the highest award available for volunteer adults, the Silver Beaver award: C. D. McClellan, Rev. Roy Brokenshire, Roy Boyer, Ralph Walton and Bernard Schindler.
The scouting center in Holiday Park started in 1927 when a condemned house in Encinitas was razed by volunteer Scouts and Scouters for lumber to build their cabin at the center's first location, near the present Personal Service laundry.
In 1929 it was moved to an Elm St. property now occupied by McCartney Mobile station. By 1950, need to expand brought it to its present locale. Many organizations and individual citizens contributed funds and labor to the reconstruction.
The "meat" of scouting is the experiences boys enjoy in the program.
Carlsbad has not been found lacking in either excitement or color wedged into the overall Scouting picture. One good for-instance of excitement occurred in November, 1948 when the SS. FALCON with Sea Scouts aboard bound for a regional rendezvous in San Diego Bay, floundered offshore from Point Lorna with a faulty motor clutch.
They threw out their sea anchor and for seven and a half hours rode 24-foot ground swells, giving every distress signal they could think of including an upside-down national ensign. Relief came for skipper Ralph Walton and his seven Sea Scouts, when Ballast Point Coast Guardsmen noted their plight and towed them into San Diego Bay.
The previous year, in November, 1947, members of Troop 760 earned the Boy Scouts of America Trail Award with their bike “Along El Camino Real to Found Mission San Luis Rey De Francia." They donned costumes of the early padres and hiked along historical El Camino Real to the mission that weekend. They camped near the mission on Saturday and Sunday and helped re-enact the founding of the mission in a pageant.
It is noteworthy to view the ultimate adult goals attained by a few of the 2,100 Carlsbad boys who participated in Scouting: Allan Kelly, marketing specialist. Carnation Milk Co., South America; Doug Smith, ministerial student, Princeton University; Jerry McClellan, Scoutmaster, Carlsbad; Bruce Ganoe, admiral’s aide, U.S. Navy; Clark Dawson, engineer, General Telephone Co.; Lloyd McClellan, executive, Hughes Aircraft, Los Angeles.
Like the other side of a good coin, Boy Scouting has its opposite: the Girl Scouts.
In this program, Mrs. Alice Ellis is called the "Girl Scout Mother in Carlsbad" for her activities in the work over many years.
Reporting on the Girl Scouts, Mrs. Arthur (Clara) Dockham of Girl Scout Troop 184 passed along information supplied by Mrs. Leo (Lillie) Black.
The 12 Carlsbad troops and 214 girl scouts in 1960 had sprung from one eighth grade Girl Scout Troop in 1937, since disbanded.
In 1942, Lucia Kelly, (daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Allan Kelly, and a friend decided they wanted to become Girl Scouts, after a "pep" talk by a Field representative.
Mrs. Elizabeth Ulrich, a serviceman's wife, was the leader and Mrs. Alice Ellis, co-leader. Mrs. Ulrich was forced by bad health to surrender her work; it was taken By Mrs. Allan Kelly, with Mrs. Irwin (Dorothy) Kelly as co-leader.
In September, 1943, the local membership amounted to one troop of about l2 girls.
Grace Dawson was a member of the first troop formed, and Betty Rose Glines belonged to the 1943 unit.
The ebb and flow of the growth of this resort city of Carlsbad has been measured by the activity of the Chamber of Commerce or its interim counterpart units, since founding in 1922. The community's good times and bad are traced in their records.
Myrtle Bream, whose extensive history of the Chamber is digested here, laid initial credit for research to R. D. Garland, editor of the Carlsbad Journal, whose files were perused for fact.
In 1922 the Chamber organized with R. G. Chase as president and 15 members. Chase turned the gavel over to Luther L. Gage in 1924. In 1925, under President Sam D. Fraser, initial monthly meetings were dedicated to getting Carlsbad "on the map." According to minutes written by C. D. McClellan, they welcomed "younger men” into membership. Late that year, a Carlsbad Business Property Owners Association was formed with C. A. Craig as president, with goals of streets and roads, lighting, new business and publicity.
In 1926 T. Hart served as president and the Chamber installed street signs donated by Fennel and Craig, and made improvements to the Santa Fe station park.
1927 - Dan Wethern, president.
1928 - R. G. Chase, president; Dewey McClellan, secretary for the third year. Lt. Gov. Baron Pitts, guest speaker at annual Twin Inns dinner, hailed Carlsbad as "The Home at the Avocado." The Carlsbad and Oceanside chambers, with Carlsbad Realty Board and Aero Club combined to promote an airport for the community. C. J. Fennel was asked to make plans for a city business survey and to prepare incorporation plans. Chamber has almost 200 members.
1929 – J. Fennel, president. Annexation to Oceanside was discussed and rejected.
1930 - Fred Mitchell, president, with a $3,000 budget the main project was a city-wide Beautification program. Incorporation was discussed and the following plans were endorsed: establishment of a hospital and health center, swimming pool, golf course, riding academy, and consolidation with Vista and Oceanside into the San Luis Rey metropolitan district.
1931 - William J. Murphy, president. Parks were two big projects; a split of the county was studied. Chamber interest lagged but was revived in September with weekly luncheons resumed under the leadership of Dan Wethern and C. J. Fennel.
1932 - C. D. McClellan, president. Unity appeal put out; annual dinner-dance routs gloom; beach improved by construction of steps and path to beach at Elm Avenue.
1933 – H. Roy Boyer, president. The Carlsbad Planning Assn. promoted drainage and improved streets. Employment was a big problem. C. J. Fennel, chairman for streets signs committee, community supper celebrated Carlsbad beach becoming state park with assistance of W. T. Hart, State Parks and Beaches Commissioner.
1934 - Dr. L. H. Fairchild, president. Beautification, paving, improved roads and streets were goals of this year.
1935 - Fred Mitchell again president. "Community appearance” theme preparing for San Diego World Exposition.
1936-1937 - Interest lagged and there were few meetings.
1938-1939 - No active Chamber; Carlsbad Community Improvement Club formed with S. D. Fraser president through 1939, seeking memberships of residents as well as businessmen. Action was taken to make Buena Vista Lagoon a bird sanctuary and a motor boat regatta was held on Agua Hedionda Lagoon.
1940-1941 - With Oliver M. Morris as president of the Community Improvement Club, the name was changed back to Chamber of Commerce; working for road oiling with county doing the work and citizens underwriting the cost; deputy sheriff obtained for district; financial assistance was given Buena Vista Lagoon Assn. for water level control.
1944-1945 - P. Russell Grosse, president. Boom predicted for area; Chamber publicized Carlsbad's advantages for residence and business, and encouraged culture and resort possibilities. 75 met on subject of new bank.
1946 - C. D. McClellan again president. Chamber office in Waggoner Appliance store open 3-5pm five days a week with Miss Cynthia Davenport, secretary. Projects were police and fire protection, state park development; formation of utility district. September pot luck supper summarized projects and proposed three lagoons surveyed for small harbors. Col. Daniel Closser, Carlsbad Hotel public variations manager offered free lot and half of expenses to Chamber building.
1947 - C. H. Patterson president. Projects: Carlsbad State Beach improvements and full time police protection. Hotel owner Spence Reese offered free lot on Grand Avenue opposite Carlsbad Hotel. Lumber companies offered material. Mrs. R. Poindexter offered shake roof material.
1948-1949 - G. Vern Snorgrass, president. Chamber holds weekly luncheons and frequent public gatherings. Projects: sewers and disposal systems, beach improvements, street lighting and cleaning, zoning, incorporation and city directory; population over 5,000. Traffic, water problems, Buena Vista Lagoon and Agua Hedionda boat harbor plans aired; work continued on Buena Vista Lagoon, a Booklet published, beautification programmed, sanitary system expanded, state park and boat basin improved. President reported that 96% of Carlsbad business men were members of Chamber.
1949-1950 - Denny Wood, president. Projects: Establishment of Justice Court in the North end of the county, freeway plan discussed, water obtained through Utility District, Gerald McClellan’s committee to promote light industry; Security Bank opened June 1.
1950-1951 – H. R. R. Robinson, president. Chamber proposed splitting San Diego County in two, aided funds for Buena Vista Lagoon, financial assistance for Volunteer Fire Department.
1951-1952 - Robert E. Nelson, president. Considered incorporation or annexation, assisted city business license study and city establishment: Budget $1831.
1952-1953 - Ken Ebright, president. Santa Fe Depot parking lot work begins: new Office on Carlsbad Hotel mezzanine established, Dorothy Kelly replaces Secretary Jane Oldham. New by-laws increased number of directors to 12, 95% Businesses were Chamber members: light industry survey made, Del Mar Fair display made.
1953-1954 - Gerald C. McClellan, president. Santa Fe $3500 parking lot completed with donations; welcome committee formed. North County Center sought; Projects: hospital. North County airport, small Boat harbor, binding for Spring Holiday; first industrial brochure printed: C-C offices move from hotel mezzanine to main lobby with Charlice Dunne, secretary.
1954-1955 - B. M. Christiansen, president Carlsbad promoted as Southern California resort, progress furthered on Tri-City hospital and boat harbor; Miss Hope Harbor reigned at Spring Holiday; assists water ski show; tight industries invited in; master industrial site plans formed for city, merchants handled Christmas decorations.
1955-1957 – H. Glenn Feist, president. Chamber studies business district lights and city Sales Tax Ordinance. Projects: separate telephone prefix sought, support pledged Tri-city hospital. John McKaig chairman clean-up, fiscal year switched From July 1 to June 30; new tourist brochures prepared, office set up downtown on State Street.
1957-1958 - A. Stephen, president. Office moved to new arcade building on Grand Avenue, open six hours daily with Myrtle Bream as secretary-manager; Hawaiian tour sponsored. C. D. McClellan begins work toward tri-city area industrial development. Projects: harbor, state beach full development, sewerage, increased tourism studied.
1958-1959 - William L. Torres, president. Chamber provided financial support for Carlsbad High School Band uniforms: Perry Lamb chairman’s Beach cleanup campaign; Elm Avenue street light project completed; air freight survey at Palomar airport shows tons of flowers airlifted East, air freight companies asked to set up service; Bonanza's airport service renewed, assisted in dedication ceremonies: industrial brochures published, State Highway Department urged to complete freeway landscaping.
1959-1960 - Albert E. Came, president. "Build a Better Business Climate” theme; meetings with property owners in different blocks to foster redevelopment plans for State Street and for establishment of a new downtown parking lot. Projects: Chairmen B. M. Christiansen seeks Santa Fe depot for C-C office and art gallery; sponsored election rally with all council candidates heard; share plan for membership adopted minimum retail $540, individual $15: three-color tourist brochure near completion; Christmas decorations funds collected for renting and eventual purchasing with merchants freed from erecting and caring for decorations.
Another organization that offered much service to the community was the Rotary Club which was formed and chartered in 1959. Founded on the principles of service, to the community and to members, it subscribed to a simple and forthright code for living. This, called the "Four-way Test," was passed along by District Governor Glenn Harper when presenting the charter to President Sam Fraser.
Is it the truth? Is it fair to all concerned? Will it build good will and better friendships? Will it be beneficial to all concerned?
The charter accepted. William T. Hart gave a welcome address. Other club officers were E. M. Sinclair, vice president; K. A. Keveran, secretary—treasurer and R. H. Sonneman, sergeant-at-arms. Directors were W. S. Hogg, O. M. Morris and Glenn F. Lewis.
In recent years original members still with the club were W. T. Borden, Claud Fennel and Rudy Sonneman.
In successive years, its members served on county councils as mayors, councilmen, commissioners, as fund drive chairmen and other community and county service positions. Some of their presidents were Fraser, Hogg, Frank Thackeray, Fred Mitchell, Horace Kelly, Finis Johnson, Elwood Trask, Walter Glines, Manuel Castorena, Howard Ham. Clinton Pedley, C. C. Walters, J. Blair Pace, Raymond Ede, R. R. Robinson, Dale Ginn, Howard Baumgartner, Bin Fry, Albert Came, Lloyd Davies and B. M. Christiansen.
Rotary was founded in 1905 by a young Chicago lawyer who felt the need of better understanding among business and professional men.
Community culture is a bulwark as necessary as the economic, social, religious and administrative facets. It became known, during the Korean conflict, that those collaborators among U. S. prisoners who cooperated with their captors had many sociological deficiencies and among them in many cases was an apparent low cultural growth.
The phalanx into any cultural field of a community is supported, if not led by its library. The library shelves can gage in some degrees the community's inclination toward culture and the depth of its interest cultural.
By Georgina Cole, "A library reflects the community. A newcomer to the city often makes this his first stop and what he sees here may influence his thinking about the entire area."
On April 7, 1916, Carlsbad petitioned the county for establishment of a station here. It was granted on June 8, 1916, and on June 24, 1916, the first library venture was started here by the San Diego County Library.
The first station opened in a local store with Mrs. R. G. Chase in charge. On July 6, 1931, Mr. and Mrs. Fred Mitchell opened the office of the Carlsbad Journal to the library and retained it until July, 1949. Robert Garland, new owner of the paper, took charge of the collection until 1953, when it was moved to the Carlsbad City Hall at 3075 Harding St.
In 1956, the Library Commission decided for an independent city library. On the commission were Dale Ginn, chairman, and Mmes. Mildred Rothermel, Cecil Dunne, Ed McCann and .I. Blair Pace. The transition was made with the invaluable advice of Mrs. E. B. Sutton, who as a councilwoman and private citizen had kept in touch with the library situation for many years.
The Carlsbad City Library became a reality on July 1, 1956, with Mrs. Richard Cole as librarian. By authorization of the City Council, the same commission served the new library.
The tax base remains the same as the county rate and is the main source of income for the library. However, the library credits as much to private donations and help from city organizations as it does to the taxpayer. A look at the list of organizations helping the library may illustrate this point.
ROTARY CLUB - One of their members, Commissioner Ginn, as building chairman, organized volunteers to construct and stain all the library shelving. Ed Zahler was the export carpenter. Work done in the Pat Zahler basement was delivered by the club to the building. Hundreds of books came in on "Book Night," arranged for donations.
LIONS CLUB - Robert Watson supervised construction of sturdy tables from old doors so well, the county librarian later wanted to copy the idea. The Lions joined with Rotarians in financing repair of a record player donated by Mr. and Mrs. Roy Pace.
CARLSBAD WOMAN'S CLUB - Yearly contributions of this organization are difficult to list; they fulfill any need. They supplied a telephone for the country station, donated the clock at the Adult entry and magazine subscriptions as well as many valuable volumes.
JUNIOR WOMAN'S CLUB - Musical instruments they supplied years ago are still in use. For several years they supplied help with the Story Hour and continue to help in many ways.
JUNIOR CHAMBER OF COMMERCE - The library bulletin boards. Bakery window display shelves and the well-constructed fence for the Saturday morning Story Hour surroundings came from the Jaycees.
OCEANSlDE-CARLSBAD ART LEAGUE - The many lovely paintings decorating the walls of the two sections of the library are loaned by this group with Mrs. Egad McPherson in change of the arrangements.
FRIENDS OF THE LIBRARY - In existence only several years, they have been the backbone of the library under leaders Mrs. Roy Pace, Mrs. Lowell Richardson. Mrs. Bill Baldwin and Mrs. Gustav Kamptner. Four times a year they present programs for the public. Mrs. James Hanson contrived attractive displays in the window of Snyder's Bakery. Popular workshop meetings every third Monday at the Children's Library called for extra chairs. Mrs. Ralph Scholink had an outstanding year as chairman of the Workshop committee. Mrs. John Almack and Mrs. Max Miesse, assistant librarians, supervised the volunteer work.
Their success with the library in Carlsbad is simply told in a set of figures.
In 1953, the county station on Harding Street at the close of the year showed 4,391 books in circulation, with the library open only 18 hours a week. At the end of 1958-59, 46,730. At the end of June 1960, 54,158 books were in circulation. The library is now open 50 hours each week.
UNA CIUDAD AL FIN
The assemblage known as a community, where differing personalities are thrown into intimate circles of common opinions, each stirred by its own joint motives, each led by an outstanding personality or set of personalities, leads to divergent conclusions which individually can be recorded with finality only at the polls - many voters holding unresolved, in concrete opinion until the moment their ballot is cast. Then it becomes a cold, impersonal digit on one side of the fence or the other to settle an issue supposedly with unassailable totals.
If some thought the 1960 presidential elections were close, they should note the comparatively paper-thin margins or the positive stalemates arrived at in the process of voting on taking Carlsbad out of county guardianship into a municipal corporation as a whole or choosing partial annexation with Oceanside.
The self-government proponents ran head-on into (a) strong opposition that held partial annexation was the best course and (b) the middle-of-the-road camp that was "agin" either course, merely wanting to leave things as they were.
From perusal of the Chamber of Commerce calendar down through the years, it can be noted that this problem was a long while coming to a Bead. Incorporation and annexation was frequently a chamber subject. But in 1951, the citizens of Carlsbad voted to incorporate.
The story as told in detail By Bill Baldwin, protagonist for incorporation, was apparently strongly objective in presentation to an outsider.
"In 1949," said Bill, "Vern Snorgrass, then manager of the Carlsbad Hotel, asked the California Taxpayers Association to prepare a study for incorporation of Carlsbad.
There was little to go on in the way information; there had been no information in San Diego County for 20 years. No action was taken on the completed study because it was so strongly opposed.
Afterwards, the Chamber of Commerce as a body to handle civic problems but without absolute authority found it could not cope with the rapidly growing community.
In the fall of 1950 at a Chamber meeting, President R. R. Robinson appointed a five-man incorporation study committee. Volunteer groups, such as the Volunteer Fire Department and the Public Utility Board, without powers themselves to help with the study, were augmented By Col. I. H. Gronseth, R. M. Sutton and R. R. Robinson, and collectively they sought voluntary funds to hire J. R. Goodbody, former attorney for the City of Coronado, to formulate incorporation plans.
Notwithstanding the purchase of a fire truck with voluntary funds from a drive spearheaded By Robert Hardin, it and the State Forestry truck could not save an Oak Ave. home from destruction by fire on New Year's Day, 1951. Fire hydrants and proper firefighting equipment were lacking.
Feelings ran high. The three camps became more pronounced on the incorporation annexation sit-tight" issue.
One faction formed by beach owners beginning at the Army-Navy Academy, insisted that annexation with Oceanside would give them immediate ultimate protection from carbon copies of the New Year’s Day fire. The strip they wished annexed was land beginning at the academy and including the property between the ATGSF Railway and the ocean, south through the lagoon to include the Gas and Electric Company.
The other opposing faction, the Carlsbad Rural Citizens group, maintained it was unnecessary to either incorporate or be annexed.
By the end of January, 1951, the preliminary study showed Carlsbad could incorporate with assessed valuation $4,000,000 and tax rate of $.58 per $100 of assessed evaluation. Publishing of the incorporation outline in the Carlsbad Journal within a week was the cue taken by opponents to seek citizen support for preventing the move.
On February 28, sufficient signatures on 18 incorporation petitions sought permission from San Diego County supervisors for the election. Citizen's committee work defined boundaries for the proposed new city. A public hearing was to be set pending the supervisors’ check on legality of signatures.
At the same time, the opposition group had the area proposed for annexation approved by the Boundary Commission.
On March 15, the City Council of Oceanside formally accepted a petition bearing 57 signatures from people on the "strip." Even as incorporation proponents were beating the drum in public meetings, the annexation election was set for May 2.
In a meeting April 10, 1951, with the San Diego county board of supervisors, all three factions aired their cases and the vote was three-to-two to delay setting the election date for incorporation.
Now it appeared that Carlsbad could no longer stay as it was. Ether the "strip" would go to Oceanside or Carlsbad would have to incorporate.
The May 2 voting on the "strip" was 44 to 41 in favor of annexing with five absentee votes outstanding, to be counted at the Oceanside City Council's May 14 meeting. Incorporation backers challenged five votes.
On May 15 at Oceanside Council, with absentee ballots in, the "DUB was 45 to 45, giving the incorporation camp the go ahead. Some previous annexationists now swung onto the incorporation bandwagon.
June 24 was set as the incorporation election and popular vote encouraged the following residents to run for Councilmen: C. D. McClellan, Raymond Ede, George Grober, Manuel Castorena and Mrs. E. B. Sutton. Mrs. G. M. was suggested for treasurer and Col. Ed Hagen for city clerk. A petition was circulated for W. Roy Pace for treasurer.
At an open incorporation meeting May 20, Eddie Kentner, owner of the Twin Inns, accepted chairmanship of the Carlsbad Citizens' Committee for Incorporation; Albert Came, Marv Humphrey's and Max Ewald formed the finance committee and 15 people were named to the precinct committee.
A series of public hearings was held culminated by one on June 5 in the Carlsbad School auditorium. At that time, candidates for council, over and above the original slate, included John Keenan, Frank Smith, Dick Ohanneson, Percy Holmes and Walter Parrish; Roy Pace was now running for treasurer.
Opinionated groups began working feverishly for and against incorporation. Echoes of their drives were seen in full-page ads of Carlsbad and neighboring towns, newspapers. Facts were subjugated by personalities.
The San Diego Gas & Electric Co. $60,000,000 plant being erected had been within the boundaries the incorporation outline, but its officials had said they would go along with annexation if it occurred. Its assessed valuation would have profound effect on Carlsbad's economy if incorporation was voted in.
During June, $2,000 was raised voluntarily to defray costs of incorporation.
On June 24, 70% of Carlsbad’s voters brought in incorporation by 781 to 714; elected were McClellan, Castorena, Grober, Ede and Lena Sutton as councilman, Col. Hagen as city clerk and Pace as treasurer.
Councilmen elected McClellan as mayor; he was to guide zoning and planning; Ede, finance and budget; Grober, building and public work; Mrs. Sutton, water, and Castorena, the police and fire department.
Since the city was established after the first Monday in March, no real estate taxes could be collected that first year, council depended entirely upon state gasoline tax allocation, court tines, business licenses, zoning and various fees for money to supply services.
Goods and services of the county were dropped but they helped whenever they legally could. Council met almost daily. Many citizens volunteered aid and services in the field best suited to them and council accepted.
Among important business accomplished by the new council was the appointment of Max Palkowski as Chief of police. He was using his own car on a mileage basis for police work. Use of the Oceanside jail was extended to Carlsbad. A Former Catholic church was rented for city offices and chief of police headquarters. Furniture, equipment, plumbing, etc., were donated by individuals and city firms. S. G. Wolters, of Escondido, was selected by council to serve as an additional policeman, starting salary $275 monthly for a night shift.
The official population was set at 6963 and the city area was square miles with an assessed valuation of about five million dollars. The City joined the League of California cities early in August, 1953.
Carlsbad was barely incorporated before a law suit was instigated, alleging that the city was illegally formed. Judge Turrentine sustained the demurrer of July 30, but the ruling was appealed. Within weeks, the Carlsbad Free Press was making its initial appearance carrying a legal notice directed to city officers and others in city administration.
The notice read that all would he held and financially periled if they performed any further municipal acts for the intended City of Carlsbad.
Early attempts of council to join the San Diego County Water Authority paid off in an informal agreement with them in October, 1952.
Despite a lack of finances, the city continued to make rapid strides and by the end the year was still operating in the black.
Police and volunteer fire department units were officially accepted as a part of the city. The council also concerned itself with a subdivision ordinance.
In April 1953, a group of five citizens pressed suit questioning the validity of Carlsbad’s election notice in the Carlsbad Journal. The question was thrown on the election by virtue of omission from the notice at the date of the election and the number of inhabitants within the proposed city boundaries when the notice was published on May 22 and May 29, 1952. Another citizen in late April brought suit on the same charges. The city attorney successfully defended the city's formation legality.
The first half of 1953 was spent attempting to form a Municipal Water District to obtain Colorado River water.
In September, 1953, council levied a tax rate of 43 cents per $100 assessed evaluation. In October, a citizens' committee representing council and the sanitary board, reviewed plans for a sanitary disposal plant.
The water issue renewed divided camps within Carlsbad. One group favored disincorporation and annexation with Oceanside and the other, drawing from the San Diego Water Authority through their own water district.
Superior Court Judge C. Monroe ruling on the two pending suits, deemed valid the election for incorporation as a sixth class city. However, in March, 1954, council was petitioned for permission to circulate a petition for consolidation with Oceanside.
During March the Municipal Water District was voted in, 1,089 to 684, as directors were I. Rogers, Max Ewald, Bill Fry, Allan Kelly and Patrick Zahler.
Then came April's elections, the o1d issue of incorporation vs. annexation represented by the two slates of candidates.
On the platform to retain incorporation were the incumbents. McClellan, Castorena, and Ede, joined by Robert M. Sutton and C. R. "Red” Helton.
Their opposition, favoring consolidation with Oceanside were Frank B. Smith, Charles B. Ledgerwood, Frank T. Downing, Herbert L. Carpenter and Manuel M. Gastellum.
The April 13 election put into office McClellan, Castorena, and Ede; as Councilmen, Helton and Sutton. Pace was re-elected city treasurer and Max Ewald as city clerk. Harmony could now be established.
mayors have been Raymond Ede, Manuel
Castorena, Charles Ledgerwood and Mrs. Jane Sonneman.
Tied in with incorporation and its headaches of establishment is a sister venture - the formal championing of and search for more much-needed water.
Introduction to a series on the water problem in the Carlsbad Journal began:
“Through the entire history of Southern California lies the underlying thread of the search for water. Abundantly endowed with many of nature’s blessings, water is not among them.” And the ensuing water story was told by Gen. Rogers. USMC (ret).
His story not only handles some sidelights not shown earlier in this chronicle during the stormy sessions at the advent of maneuvers to establish a Municipal Water District, but projects the picture through the time-scheduled contemporary improvements up into the ultimate development of the system that is planned for the target year 1982.
It has been mentioned previously that in 1914, the South Coast Land Co. drilled wells in the San Luis Rey riverbed for an adequate supply of water that would help promote their sale of real estate in the Carlsbad area.
Gen. Rogers said that the original rights for wells west of the San Luis Rey mission were secured by Carlsbad developers with the organization of the Oceanside Mutual Water Co. which later became the Carlsbad Mutual Water Co.
The contract entered into the City of Oceanside around 1914 allowed 200 miner’s inches of water for Carlsbad if it didn't interfere with an adequate supply for Oceanside.
Carlsbad Mutual then figured on this bringing them 5600 acre feet per year or 1.8 acre feet per share for 2,000 shares of Mutual stock, each share ensuring irrigation for one acre. A later court decision ruled that the 206 miner’s inches allowed only 2800 acre feet per year or 1.4 acre feet per share.
The direction the line would take was not definitely settled and an attempt by Carlsbad failed to have them bring in a lateral to the edge of the district at San Marcos; however, it may have influenced the laying of the westerly line seven miles nearer.
As a result, the board negotiated successfully with San Marcos County Water District to use excess capacity of their easterly boundary aqueduct. This enabled installation of a 14” line from that junction to the metering station at Foothill and San Marcos Road, saving about $150,000 in construction fees.
A 21" line connected the metering station with the reservoir on the Clemson ranch - a 27“ from there to Camino Real intersection and 20" into Carlsbad.
San Marcos has an option to buy the 14" line From Carlsbad when the second aqueduct comes into full use or later. In the meantime, they pay the same normal rental as local consumers on the line. This project was undertaken by Improvement District No. 1, since North Carlsbad was excluded. Water deliveries began in mid-1957.
In November, 1957, improvement District No. 2 was formed and a line was built to the south, entirely paid for by the area served and enabling much land to be brought under cultivation.
This and water from a few wells in Agua Hedionda creek for Terramar irrigation held sufficiently until the population explosion of the late 1940's. Then, a filing made on the San Luis Rey for an additional 750 acre foot per year from the state was allowed provided the lower San Luis Rey basin water table was 10 feet above sea level (a level never reached since filing).
Then came a little side-junket into stock re-arrangement that was rough, bumpy and had naught but a cul-de-sac terminal.
Carlsbad Mutual stock was divided into three classes: Class "A" — 2,00 shares of basic entitlement: Class "B" the 750 acre feet filing; Class "C" covering 150-acre feet average runoff into Calaveras Lake for Terramar.
Some Class "B" stock was sold pro ratum for $250 a share to Class "A" holders. Class "C" stock was objected to by some Class "C” holders who contended that no such Calavera excess existed and San Luis Rey water would be used, instead.
The original contract with Oceanside provided no delivery of water south of Agua Hedionda or east of a line three miles from the coast.
A lawsuit forced abandonment of Class "C" stock and cancellation of Class "B" with monies refunded.
An initial effort to form the Carlsbad Utility District, concerned with 10,000 acres about 1949, ended in dissolvement when the Municipal Water District was formed.
Although incorporation was accomplished for Carlsbad in June, 1951, negotiations for annexation of the new city to the San Diego County Water Authority were hampered by the city's incorporation legality suit and resultant impasse.
The suggested Municipal Water District bounds for Carlsbad, made by the San Diego authority board to ensure contiguous water supply throughout the District with no “islands and windows," covered from Oceanside’s bounds on the north, Vista on the east, and San Dieguito irrigation District on the south, an area of 20,000 acres.
The San Diego County Water Authority formed in 1944 and joined later by Oceanside, had an aqueduct running from near San Jacinto to San Vicente reservoir near Lakeside, the nearest point to Carlsbad being Escondido. Small capacity lateral was also run from the aqueduct east of Fallbrook through Fallbrook Public Utility to a point in the San Luis Rey basin about two miles northwest of the mission to feed the Oceanside collection Basin; Oceanside had built a high pressure line to North Carlsbad in the early 1950's.
In August, 1953, citizens desiring formation of a Municipal Water District met and formed a water committee with Attorney W. B. Dennis of Fallbrook as their contingent legal counsel other meetings with property owners and eventually with the Water Problems committee of the Authority, plus $185 donated for Formation expenses (and later returned to citizens), extracted informal approval for annexation with the Authority.
Circulated throughout the proposed district was a petition for the county Board of supervisors, ordering of the election and approval of a district bounded by Vista Way, north; west limit of Dawson ranch on the east; south meander line Batiquitos Lagoon on the south. Before approval was given, North Carlsbad was included, also.
The election set for March 24, 1954, carried the issue almost two-to-one and the district became a member of the San Diego County Water Authority on June 19, 1954.
But the water line was 16 miles away at Escondido.
Until a pipe line could be engineered to Escondido, an interim arrangement with Oceanside gave Carlsbad the use of their unused line capacity. A cross-connection at Hunsacker and California Sts. was arranged at the expense $5 per acre foot transmitted. Carlsbad was to expedite their own line and receive only what water Oceanside didn't need. This arrangement served well except in critical summer months.
After study by Boyle Engineering for wholesale distribution to all areas, a $2,000,000 bond election was called in August. 1955, but was defeated, 941-480.
Municipal directors placed the program in the hands of a citizens committee which after several months recommended hiring another engineer to survey the situation. Sidney G. Harding, of Berkeley, hired by the board, recommended first a 14'' line from the end of the Authority-Fallbrook-Oceanside lateral to North Carlsbad, to connect with the San Luis Rey system, then for adequacy’s sake recommended an 18” line.
To settle a dispute over where the line should leave the San Diego aqueduct, a citizens committee made an on-site inspection and comparison of costs. They recommended that the south line come through San Marcos.
A $1,250,000 bond election called in July, 1956, voting on the smaller line, eliminating the southerly extension and the line to North Carlsbad was defeated by a margin of 100 votes. The board requested a new election on the same issue and. with assistance of a citizen’s group influence, passed the measure in October, 1956: 1500 to 577.
In the meantime, the San Diego Authority was considering a second aqueduct to increase the annual capacity to the county from 140,000 acre feet per year to 320,000 acre feet.
Sub-dividing of lands in the Carlsbad Mutual area made it difficult to obtain a quorum of LOGO-plus shares at annual shareholders’ meetings, so at $250 a share, the City of Carlsbad entered into contract on Aug. 30, 1957, to buy Mutual for 3500.000. The City was to assume certain obligations, subject to shareholders’ approval and of a bond election for purchase funds and rehabilitation monies.
After several months, the shareholders’ approval was obtained and the revenue bond election of Dec. 17, 1957, for 3598.000 purchase and $167000 for rehabilitation carried with a great majority. Transfer took place shortly afterwards. Less than 1 per cent of the certificates are still outstanding.
Excluded from San Luis Rey water use, the Terramar section south of Agua Hedionda Lagoon had organized the Terramar Water Co., utilizing water drawn from wells in upper Agua Hedionda.
Some Oceanside water sold to Terramar tided them over until Colorado River water was available through Municipal’s connection made at El Camino Real. To unify city service, Carlsbad purchased the Terramar Co. for $117,000 on Feb. 18, 1958. Money used for the purchase came from the rehabilitation funds voted in 1957.
Need of replacement and repair funds necessitated voting on a $300,000 revenue water bond issue on July 28. 1959.
A suit brought in 1953 by the San Luis Rey Water Conservation District to prohibit Carlsbad Mutual from further use of the water on grounds that Carlsbad was a non-riparian user, failed in the courts in 1959 for its prescriptive rights had been unchallenged for five continuous years. The amount of water Carlsbad can use has not been adjudicated, but will be based on the years' use.
Proposed Improvement District No. 3 will furnish water to areas not included in ID-2 and to all areas the district except North Carlsbad which is legally dependent upon San Luis Rey water. The second San Diego aqueduct will upon completion provide needed water until the City of Los Angeles begins taking almost its full entitlement between 1970 and 1975.
The Water Authority entitlement of 112,000 acre feet of Colorado water may be threatened by the Arizona suit and by claims on the upper Colorado, but the supply cannot be cut back seriously under less than 10 years.
So what is the future water picture?
The $1,750.000,000 bond issue voted on in November, 1960, is planned to underwrite the Feather River project. This project calls for a storage reservoir at Oroville that will serve Southern California about 1,800,000 acre feet of water through canals, pipe lines and exchanges in the Delta of the Sacramento River and a storage dam at the San Luis site west of Los Baños.
The state bond issue money was to be spent at the tale of about $75,000,000 per year plus some $15,000,000 from tideland revenues, to bring water over the Tehachipis to the vicinity of Castaic by 1970.
By interchange with Los Angeles and Metropolitan, this will ensure adequate water to San Diego County, pending completion of the branch from German through Lancaster and El Cajon Pass to Perris in 1982 to connect with the Metropolitan system. (Present plans the Department of Water Resources provide for delivery of water at Perris early in the 1970’s). About 780,000 acre feet of this water is allocated to the San Bernardino-Riverside-San Diego areas of Metropolitan.
The cost is expected to be high, estimated at $72 per acre foot at Perris, which will be averaged with the local and Colorado River costs.
This will not be cheap, but will provide for the domestic, industrial and high value crop water requirements. If more is needed, California Water plans provide for tapping the Eel and other northern California rivers.
Storage reservoirs seem to be the saving factor for the future to guard against state-wide drought, excessive daily fluctuations and any lengthy shut-downs of the feeder lines, the storage should be provided for above-ground or underground.
Above-ground storage expense is almost prohibitive, for it entails pumping and water treatment in addition to the initial cost.
Gen. Rogers proposes the San Luis Rey basin as a long-term storage, calling for cooperation of riparian owners and the cities of Carlsbad and Oceanside. Such large-scale storage is already achieved in the Santa Ana river basin and the west basin near Los Angeles. He urges that the project be undertaken as soon as urgent school and sewerage needs have been met.
Water is an appropriate closing note for the Carlsbad Chronicle, for the story of the City of Carlsbad really began with water from Frazier's well. The full story of the "Frazier's Station" water has not been told here and cannot be told here, for future generations will perpetuate the story beyond these pages.
However, there is an interesting, up-to-date sidelight that may be of interest regarding the famous well of Carlsbad, Calif. It became a historical monument of California, so dedicated by an Assembly Resolution #125 on April 20, 1957.
Official inclusion of the well among the state's historical marks was reported by the present owner, B. M. Christiansen, who became interested in the well in the early 1950's. Then, he said, the well was deserted, forgotten and actually buried under several feet of dirt.
The more fragments he gathered of the well's history and use of the water, the more impatient Christiansen became to restore it to a place of prominence, a position of prestige that would place it on a plane of respect with its twin, Karlsbad No. 9, in Czechoslovakia. His research even took him to Europe after plowing through data in many libraries, talking with many "old-timers" and piecing it all together.
He was interested by a note in the deed that located the well almost at the curb line of the street and provided a proportionate extension of the front property line to include the well’s location in the rest of the lot.
His search took on the excitement of a treasure hunt.
It led him into uncovering the origin of the Karlsbad No. 9 well, in the Fourteenth century, by King Karl IV of Bohemia. One of the king's dogs fell over a cliff into a hot spring below. After rescue, it was found that the dog's bruises and scratches healed quickly.
The king's doctor noted this and advised the king to use the water on an old battle wound. This healed the wound quickly and King Kart IV ordered a hunting castle built on the spot. Thus, the Bohemian town's name developed from the fact that it was Karl's Bad.
Christiansen brought back from Europe the desire to place the American counterpart on a plane of esteem, so he duplicated in scale the beautiful graceful well house of one in far away Czechoslovakia.
Eight posts symbolize the eight major tribes of old Bohemia and hold the graceful copper roof that sweeps to a point bearing four conical ornaments. They, too, have meaning.
The four ornaments promised a family fruitful to those married nearby three sons and a daughter. The well in the center stood for the eternal fountain of life and eternity. The roof of the well symbolized family safety of life and protection from the elements.
Many tourists now stop beside this shrine in Carlsbad, admiring the unique well structure of the cobblestone courtyard and stone and brick wall. Countless photographs are taken in this scene, but many are unaware of the story behind it and remain so, unless the owner is handy and they enjoy an invitation from him to go down the steps in back of the wall, through an iron gate which is secured by a great lock brought from Munich into the room under the courtyard where they may look down into the original well and hear the fascinating story of the past.
Should B. M. Christiansen's dreams be fulfilled, he may one day recreate here a touch of Old Bohemia, restored to compliment the well that meant so much to the development of one American city.
Specific credit has been given to some contributors throughout the book: additional acknowledgement should also be given to:
Union-Title Insurance Company - San Diego
Blade-Tribune - Oceanside
Mrs. B. M. Christiansen
Mr. Claud Fennel
Mr. and Mrs. Roy Carpenter
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Carpenter
M r. Rudy Carpenter
Mrs. Edward M. McCann, Jr.
Mr. R. R. Robinson
Mrs. William Stromberg
Mrs. Jean Walker
Mr. Dewey Kelly
Mrs. Gertrude Myers
Mrs. Ernest Taylor
Mr. and Mrs. C. D. McClellan
Mr. and Mrs. Luther Gage
Mr. Jim Kelly
Mr. and Mrs. D. J. Detwiler
Mr. Ben Schelske
Mrs. Lewis Chase
Mrs. Lowell Richardson
Miss Florence A. Pierce
Mrs. Della Clark
Mr. Ed Ainsworth Los Angeles Times
Mr. Gerald McClellan
H. P. O’Leary - special representative of the ATE-SF Public Relations Dept.
Mrs. Richard Cole
Mr. L. Dutton James
Mrs. Roma Acuna
Rev. Philip Zimmerman
Mr. and Mrs. J. Raven Barter
Mr. Albert Came
Miss Toni Morgan
Mr. Joe Here-din
Mr. Ralph Walton
Col. W. C. Atkinson - Pros. Army-Navy Academy
Mrs. John Enright
Mr. and Mrs. B. M. Christiansen
Mr. and Mrs. Irwin Kelly
Dr. and Mrs. L. H. Fairchild
Mrs. Olive Cary Gage
Col. W. C. Atkinson, President Army-Navy Academy
Mr. and Mrs. Edward M. McCann, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. C. D. McClellan
Mr. and Mrs. R N. Sheffler
Mr. and Mrs. Carroll Kelly
Mr. and Mrs. R. R. Robinson
Dr. and Mrs. J. Blair Pace
Mr. Robert E. Allen
Mr. and Mrs. William C. Baldwin
Mr. and Mrs. Allan O. Kelly
Carlsbad Junior Woman’s Club
Carlsbad Woman’s Club
Carlsbad Rotary Club
Mr. and Mrs. Lowell Richardson
Mr. and Mrs. Roy Pace
Mr. and Mrs. Dale Ginn